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I want you to paraphrase this AsAp

Historically, accounting has been considered a highly trustworthy profession. Public accounting firms trained new accountants in the audit function with oversight from senior partners who believed that their firm’s integrity rode on every engagement. That is, new auditors were assigned client responsibility after minimal formal audit training. Most of the training of new accountants took place on-site, and the effectiveness of the new auditor depended on the effectiveness of the instructor.

CPA firms have always called their customers “clients” and have worked hard to cultivate them. Partners routinely entertained clients at sporting events, country clubs, and restaurants, and many CPA firm employees later moved on to work in their clients’ firms. Any conflicts in these relationships were, at least partially, offset by the CPA firm’s commitment to professional ethics.

These relationships changed as information technology advisory services grew in the late 1970s and early ’80s. Also in the mid-1980s, the AICPA lifted its ban on advertising. As a result, revenue generation became more critical to partners’ compensation. Thereafter, the profit structure of CPA firms changed dramatically and in 1999, revenues for management consulting accounted for more than 50 percent of the then Big Five’s revenue.

As a result, the audit function evolved into a loss leader that public accounting firms offered in conjunction with vastly more lucrative consulting engagements. But as pubic accounting firms competed more aggressively on price for audit engagements, they were forced by cost considerations to reduce the number of procedures performed for each client engagement. This resulted in increased test of controls and statistical models, and fewer of the basic, time-consuming tests of transactions that increase the likelihood of detecting fraud. In addition, junior auditors were frequently assigned the crucial oversight roles usually filled by senior partners, who were otherwise engaged in marketing activities to prospective clients. This reduced the effectiveness of the instructor–new accountant training process.

b. 1. Arthur Andersen, formerly one the Big Five audit firms, has gone out of business.

2. In July 2002, President George W. Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Bill, which imposes a number of corporate governance rules on publicly traded companies

3. Establishment of PCAOB.

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