MSA 600 Administration
Research and Report Method
Submitted by: William C
Project Instructor: Steven
Central Michigan University
How Does High Turnover of Supervisors Affect Employee
Performance at Nara?
NARA commonly known as National Archives Records and Administration was
established in 1934 by congress to hold, store, and safeguard federal files.
Over history tracking records has been a frequent struggle for many businesses
and federal agencies, making NARA an important contribution. Many people know
National Archives for the keeping of the .archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html”>Declaration of
Independence, the .archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html”>Constitution, and the .archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html”>Bill of Rights. It also provides keeping for regular citizens for
example, military citizens, immigrant’s naturalization records, and local citizen’s
transaction checks. NARA has preserved
and provided access to the records of the United States of America. Records
help us claim our rights and entitlements, hold our elected officials accountable
for their actions, and document our history as a nation. NARA grants continuing
access to the essential documentation of the rights of American citizens and
the actions of their government.
Significant documents and artifacts, some dating back to 1775, consist
of the following: slave ship manifests, the Emancipation Proclamation, captured
German records and the Japanese surrender documents from World War II. NARA
provides services to millions of customers around the United States and has
Archives locations in 17 states. Its job is to protect and provide public
access to millions of records. In
addition to assisting Federal agencies and the public with research and
reference services, it also delivers educational programs and public workshops
to help Americans learn how to use archived records.
The purpose of Nara (Dayton) is to provide record file services to the
Dayton metropolitan area. Its mission is to serve American democracy by
safeguarding and preserving the records of Government, ensuring that the people
can discover, use, and learn from this documentary heritage. Nara ensures
continuing access to the essential documentation of the rights of American
citizens and the actions of their government. Nara supports democracy, promotes
civil education, and facilitates historical understanding of American’s
The employee turnover at Nara (Dayton) has been on the rise over the
past years, mostly in supervisory positions, which appears to have left
employees unsatisfied. The question that will be explored is if it’s possible
that constant turnover of supervisors has affected employee performance at Nara
This research proposal will be beneficial to Nara (Dayton) Employees,
specifically the member’s of Agency Services. This research proposal can educate and show
the impact turnover in supervisor has on Nara employee and the effects that
come from it, specifically in performance and morale. It’s not attended to
downgrade Nara in anyway. Its purpose is to show the affects turnover has on
employees, and the effect it can cause in cost, and productivity.
Employees are regarded as a critical resource for any
organization. For this reason, the
relevance of effective employee performance cannot be overstated. This research paper will discuss the concerns
with employee performance in relation to supervisory turnover, and will focus
on how a high employee turnover affects employee performance particularly at
the National Archives and Records Administration – NARA. Further, this paper will highlight the
various causes of employee turnover and performance issues and the measures the
management should embrace to diminish employee dissatisfaction in their
Employee Turnover: An Overview
The impact of turnover has received a considerable amount of attention
from human resource, and upper management. Companies spend an efficient amount
of time in recruiting employees to help reduce administration cost. Costs of
training, including supervisory and coworker time spent in formal training, as
well as the time that the worker in training must spend off the job. Employee
turnover according to Armstrong (2010) is essentially the rate at which
employees leave the company. According
to Saratoga Institute (as cited in Deane and Sanjeev, 2004), “turnover is
calculated as the number of employee terminations in a given period—voluntary,
involuntary or both—divided by the average number of active employees during
the same period.” Voluntary turnover
according to Goldstein and Hersen (2000) is when the employee initiates the
separation. On the other hand,
involuntary turnover comes about when the separation is initiated by the
company (Goldstein and Hersen, 2000).
Effects of a High Turnover on Employee Performance
It is important to note that in addition to being financially costly, a
high employee turnover also hurts efficiency.
To begin with, a significantly high employee turnover rate could
effectively lower the morale of employees and hence their performance. Indeed, Gitman and McDaniel (2008) identify
turnover and absenteeism as two of the main morale and performance killers that
employees need to be on the lookout for.
As the authors further point out, the morale of other employees is
significantly affected as they watch their workmates leave. This is particularly the case given that over
time, employees tend to build a close emotional connection with those they
closely relate with at the workplace.
Thus in reference to NARA, a high turnover of supervisors could lower
the morale and hence performance of employees.
This could particularly happen in those instances where employees have
close working relations with the leaving supervisors.
Secondly, it should also be noted that when supervisors leave, the
organization may have to hire replacements immediately so as not to hinder
operations. Those hired in this case
could be lacking the necessary skills as well as experience to effectively
execute the various functions of their new position. As Armstrong (2010) points out, as new
employees are being trained; the organization does experience significant
losses in terms of output. This is more
so the case given that the new employees may not be familiar with the culture
of the organization as those they replace.
In regard to NARA, as a new supervisor is trained, work teams could
report decreased productivity. For this
reason, the effectiveness of the affected divisions could inevitably
Resistance to change on the part of the employees left could be yet
another reason as to why a high turnover of supervisors could negatively affect
performance. The said resistance to
change in this case could be caused by what Griffin and Moorhead (2011) refer
to as the fear of the unknown. Some
individuals according to the authors “fear anything unfamiliar” (Griffin and
Moorhead, 2011). Employees in this case
could refuse to give the new appointee the maximum support and/or attention he
or she needs. This they could do by
ignoring directions or resorting to outright sabotage.
It is however important to note that in addition to the costs indicated
above, a high employee turnover rate could also have a number of other negative
consequences including but not limited to additional costs. The additional costs in this case could
either be replacement or preventive.
Replacement costs are associated with finding new employees and for this
reason; they include job advert costs, interviewing expenses, etc. (Armstrong,
On the other hand, preventive costs are associated with the measures
the organization puts in place in a bid to prevent employees from leaving. Preventive costs with regard to NARA may
include salary increments, cost of building better housing facilities,
Causes of Employee Turnover
To be able to effectively manage employee turnover, the top leadership
of NARA should first identify the possible causes of employee turnover. From the onset, it is important to note that
individuals could choose to leave NARA for a wide range of reasons. Jackson, Schuler, and Warner (2011) identify
four key causes of staff turnover. These
cases include dissatisfaction with the job, conditions in the labor market,
poor human resource practices, and other role commitments (Jackson, Schuler and
Warner, 2011). To begin with, when it
comes to low job satisfaction, the authors are convinced that some employees
deem it fit to pursue their careers elsewhere as a result of dislike for the
job they do, bad working relations with their superiors, or even work-related
stress. In that regard, supervisors at
NARA could be leaving as a result of low job satisfaction brought about by the
factors I have already mentioned.
When it comes to conditions in the labor market, Jackson, Schuler, and
Warner (2011) point out those existing conditions in the labor market such as;
aggressive recruitment practices on the part of competitors or even the
availability of better opportunities elsewhere could motivate employees to
leave. For instance, in regard to NARA,
a top performing employee could be headhunted and given a hefty pay package as
well as benefits by competitors for him or her to leave the organization.
Fourth, poor human resource practices could be yet another reason as to
why employees elect to seek employment elsewhere. The said practices in this case could include
but they are not limited to little recognition and low compensation,
unavailability of opportunities for career development, unfair practices at the
workstation, etc. It is therefore possible
that some employees working for NARA may consider pursuing their careers
elsewhere should they feel that they are being treated unfairly or that the
opportunities available for career development are too few.
Other role commitments in relation to community and family could
according to Jackson, Schuler, and Warner (2011) is to blame for employee
turnover. For instance, when it comes to
family, an employee could at some point in time find it hard to strike a
balance between familial and work-related responsibilities. In such a case, the concerned employee may
elect to quit employment so as to attend to other roles and responsibilities. This could be a cause of employee turnover at
The relevance of
enhancing employee-employer relationship cannot be overstated when it comes to
reducing an organization’s employee turnover rate. Employers could enhance their relationship
with their employees in ways such as listening to their concerns and creating a
better working environment. When it
comes to addressing the concerns of employees, Aamodt (2012) points out that
“employees whose needs are unmet will become dissatisfied and perhaps leave the
organization.” With that in mind,
employers need to enhance their relations with their employees by promptly
addressing all issues raised in a prompt and fair manner. The creation of a better working environment
is also critical in relation building as it enhances the morale of
employees. In an attempt to rein in high
labor turnover rates, Wilton (2010) advises that companies conduct regular
employee attitude surveys in an attempt to assess the morale of employees.
Managers need to first
identify the key drivers of a high turnover rate so as to successfully increase
retention rates. Given the costs of
employee turnover identified above, the need to rein in high employee turnover
rates cannot be overstated.
Research Methodology of this preliminary study will be an overview focus
primarily on Agency Service employees of NARA (Dayton) and aimed at perceptions
of actual changes in behavior, and performance that could be attributed to
turnover of management supervisors. A
detailed survey questionnaire was developed aimed at determining the effects
turnover has on employees of Agency Service team of NARA. The survey questions
will help get a better perception from employees that had to transition from
diverse supervisor style, productivity, earning power, management style,
teaching and other factors. Five
questions were used to determine predictor or impact variables. These are shown in appendix C. It was
expected that competency in high turnover would be associated with perceptions
of success in doing research and one questions probed this issue. Second, two question asked about the effect
of performance on organization and management. The survey showed particular
interest in the possible impact of turnover on the development and maintenance
of teamwork structures in organizations and included one question on that
subject. Finally, there were one
question that asked about personal variables like the relationship between supervisor
and employees changes in job skills, earning power and quality of life.
Survey will be given at NARA (Dayton) in formal business setting office 12
employees will receive the survey, and shall be completed by the end of the
gathering. Survey will be fair and unbiased, if an employee chooses not to
volunteer that’s completely okay. Every respondent will be indicated according
to age, gender, and work grade. Considering that this survey will acknowledge
one’s personal opinion, it will be kept safe, and confidential. The Table 1
below will be a set up on how the response rate is conducted.
1 summarizes the population according to three individual variables: age,
gender, and Work Grade.
Aamodt, M.G. (2012). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An
Applied Approach (7th ed.).
Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Armstrong, M. (2010).
Armstrong’s Essential Human Resource Management Practice: A Guide to People
Management. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Deane, W.J. & Sanjeev,
A. (Sept, 2004). Measuring Retention Rather Than Turnover: A Different and
Complementary HR Calculus. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 6-13.
Gitman, L.J. &
McDaniel, C.D. (2008). The Future of
Business: The Essentials (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Goldstein, G. & Hersen,
M. (2000). Handbook of Psychological
Assessment. New York: Pergamon.
Griffin, R.W. & Moorhead, G. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Managing People
and Organizations (10th ed.).Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Jackson, S.E., Schuler,
R.S. & Warner, S. (2011). Managing
Human Resources (11th ed.).
Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Wilton, N. (2010). An Introduction to Human Resource
Management. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Inc.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P.S.,
& Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of
employee turnover. Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the
next millennium, Journal of Management, 26, 463-488.
NARA, (2013). Retrieved
from http:// www.archives.gov
supervisors have you had since working at Nara?
a new supervisor circle how you felt job performance was affected.
(2) Negatively Affected (3) Positively Affected
If you felt job
performance was negatively affected, which of the following do you feel were
negatively affected? (circle all that apply)
Structure Management style Employee Morale
If you felt job
performance was positively affected, which of the following do you feel were
positively affected? (circle all that apply)
Structure Management style Employee Morale
difference in supervisory management philosophy? Which one was more affective?