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Pathophysiology

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Question:

Week 4: Discussion: Mr. X.

Ebook: Hubert, R. & VanMeter, K. (2018). Gould’s pathophysiology for the health professions (6th ed.). Elsevier.

The initial post must include responses to all the questions in both case studies.

Mr. X, age 57, presented to his physician with marked fatigue, nausea with occasional diarrhea, and a sore, swollen tongue. Lately, he also has been experiencing a tingling feeling in his toes and a feeling of clumsiness. Microscopic examination of a blood sample indicated a reduced number of erythrocytes, many of which are megaloblasts, and a reduced number of leukocytes, including many large, hypersegmented cells. Hemoglobin and serum levels of vitamin B12 were below normal. Additional tests confirm pernicious anemia.

Discussion Questions

  1. Relate the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia to the manifestations listed above.
  2. Discuss how the gastric abnormalities contribute to vitamin B12 and iron deficiency and how vitamin B12 deficiency causes complications associated with pernicious anemia.
  3. Discuss other tests that could be performed to diagnose this type of anemia.
  4. Discuss the treatment available and the limitations.

Ms. L, a 19-year-old woman with no previous medical history, was involved in a serious automobile accident in which her best friend died. Examination by EMT personnel first on the scene revealed she had only minor scrapes and bruises and no sign of head trauma. While en route by ambulance to the hospital, Ms. L complained of thirst and appeared restless. Further examination indicated a rapid pulse and respirations, with her blood pressure now at 100/60 mm Hg. She appeared less responsive to the paramedics. She was slipping into circulatory shock as they checked her again for internal injuries.

Discussion Questions

  1. Discuss the contributing factors to shock in this case and the pathophysiologic changes causing the changes in vital signs.
  2. Discuss the signs and symptoms of shock, including the rationale for each, as seen in the early stage, and as compensation mechanisms respond.
  3. Discuss emergency and follow-up treatment for shock and for complications that may arise if not treated quickly.
  4. Compare the types of shock, giving a specific cause, classification, and any significant changes in onset or manifestations.

GUIDELINES

Weekly Outcomes

  1. Articulate alterations in structure and function of the cardiovascular and hematologic systems. (CO 1)
  2. Trace the impact that alterations in the cardiovascular and hematologic systems have on the body. (CO 2)
  3. Summarize the impact of alterations in the cardiovascular and hematologic systems on homeostasis. (CO 3)

Main Topics and Concepts

  1. Alterations in the cardiovascular system: perfusion
    1. Alterations in physical structures and functions
    2. Alterations in cardiac system function
    3. Pathophysiologic cardiovascular system response to aging
    4. Congenital and genetic influences on cardiovascular system pathology

2. Alterations in the hematology system

  1. Hematologic response to illness and injury
  2. Cancers of the hematologic system
  3. Pathophysiologic hematologic system response to aging
  4. Genetic influences on hematologic system pathology

Weekly Objectives

  1. Understand normal cardiovascular system disorders.
  2. Compare and contrast common cardiovascular conditions: causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and treatments.
  3. Apply understanding of alterations in and cardiovascular systems across the lifespan to formulate care priorities.
  4. Examine responses to aging and its impact on pathophysiologic changes in the cardiovascular system.
  5. Describe how heredity and genetics influence pathophysiological alterations in the cardiovascular system.
  6. Understand the hematologic response to illness and injury.
  7. Examine factors leading to cancers of the hematologic system.
  8. Compare and contrast common types of anemias: causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and treatments.
  9. Apply understanding of alterations in the hematologic system across the lifespan to formulate care priorities.
  10. Apply growth and development principles as they relate to the impact of aging on pathophysiologic changes.
  11. Describe how genetics influence pathophysiological alterations in the hematologic system.

Sub-Concepts with Exemplar

  1. Fluid imbalances: pulmonary edema; congestive heart failure
  2. Metabolism: metabolic syndrome
  3. Perfusion: pulmonary embolism; heart disease; hypertension; venous versus arteriole disorders; and shock states
  4. Aging process: chronic leukemia
  5. Acute versus chronic conditions
  6. Cellular adaptation: acute leukemia
  7. Perfusion: polycythemia
  8. Oxygenation: anemias and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels
  9. Genetics: hemophilia A, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
  10. Injury: disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

APA format (7th ed.) and is free of errors       

Grammar and mechanics are free of errors free of Plagiarism   

References: Use your book, the outside source must be within the last 5 yrs, Scholarly Articles,s or Nurse journals within the last 5 yrs.     

Answer:

Description

The Coercive Acts of 1774 further divided the American colonies and their British rulers. The First Continental Congress, which met in the fall of 1774, tried to reconcile with Great Britain, but Massachusetts colonists had other plans. They eventually faced off against the British army at the Battles of Lexington and Concord and then chased the British back to Boston. The Second Continental Congress, trying to figure out what to do with the thousands of militia members surrounding Boston, formed the Continental Army. Congress’s aim was still reconciliation until 1776 when Thomas Paine’s Common Sense brought the argument for independence to the masses. Independence was declared on July 2, 1776. The Declaration of Independence, a document to justify independence, followed two days later.

At A Glance

  • In 1773–74 tensions rose between American colonists and Britain, sparking acts of civil disobedience by the colonists and punitive actions by the British.
  • In April 1775 three members of the Sons of Liberty alerted patriots near Boston about the impending arrival of the British army.
  • The first gunshots of the American Revolution were exchanged in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1775.
  • Despite the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, neither the British nor the American colonists were ready to sever the ties between Britain and the 13 colonies.
  • The Battle of Bunker Hill, which actually took place on Breed’s Hill in 1775, was a win for the British army but proved the Continental Army had a chance of winning the war.
  • The First Continental Congress met in September 1774 to discuss the colonies’ response to Great Britain’s Coercive Acts.
  • The Second Continental Congress’s first job, in May 1775, was figuring out how to turn separate militias into a united army.
  • Angry at colonial military victories, King George III refused to negotiate with colonial leaders and instead escalated military action against them.
  • Although initially in favor of reconciling with Great Britain, the Second Continental Congress heeded the public’s call for independence.
  • Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence in June 1776. After editing and debate, it was approved on July 4.
  • The Declaration of Independence aired Americans’ grievances against the British government.
  • The Declaration of Independence was met with mixed feelings in the colonies and resentment in Britain, yet it sparked revolutionary fervor throughout the world for decades to come.

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