# Politics and Data using R software

PSC 400: Midterm Exam Exercise

1 Identify the appropriate level of measurement for the following variables: (a) Transparency.org’s corruption index by country (from 0 = most corrupt to 100 = least corrupt) (b) Number of delegates to the Democratic Party’s national convention by state (c) Respondents’ answer to the Gallup Poll question “In general are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in the United States at this time?” (Satisfied, Dissatisfied, Unsure) (d) General Social Survey respondents’ confidence in Congress (0 = not applicable; 1 = a great deal; 2 = only some; 3 = hardly any) (e) Answer to National Election Survey (NES) question “For whom did the respondent vote for President” in the 2016 elections (1 = Clinton; 2 = Trump; 3 = Other (Specify)) (f) Presence of death penalty in U.S. states (1 = present; 0 = absent)

Exercise 2 Identify the unit of analysis in each of the following studies and formulate a plausible working hypothesis between the independent and dependent variables in the formal way discussed at length in the videos and in class (a) A study about whether the number of women on a company’s board of directors influences a company’s adoption of maternal leave policies (b) A study investigating whether the presence of a strong primary challenger influences a member of Congress retirement decision (c) An experiment investigating whether participants’ support for a presidential primary candidate is related to candidate performance in a televised debate Order at swiftessayassist.com

Exercise 3 Read the attached transcript from a “Hidden Brain” podcast concerning the relationship between food stamps policy and academic performance. Then answer the following (keep it super-brief; do not write an essay): (a) Given the description of the study in the transcript, what kind of study would you say this is? An experiment? If so, what kind of experiment? An observational study? If so, what kind of observational study? (b) What is the study’s unit of analysis? What are the investigators’ comparing? (Hint: you could say there actually are two unites of analysis here. . . ) (c) According to the article, which variable is the dependent variable and which variable is the independent variable? From the description given in the article, how would you say the investigators operationalize the independent and the dependent variable? (d) Formulate a plausible working hypothesis for their relationship. (e) Does the study meet each of the four “hurdles of causality” discussed in the Canvas video (plausibility; covariation; endogeneity; and control)? Explain briefly which ones are met, which ones are not met, and why. 1 < Examining Links Order at swiftessayassist.com

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