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Question 1 (2 points)

This historical figure used his extensive knowledge of lens
making to create some of the first complex microscopes used to view microscopic

Question 1 options:

A) Louis

B) Antonie
van Leeuwenhoek

C) Edward

D) Joseph

Question 2 (2 points)

Peptidoglycan is made largely of ________.

Question 2 options:

A) sterols

B) Lipids

C) phospholipids

D) Carbohydrate

Question 3 (2 points)

Bacteria typically range in size from 1- 2 Millimeters (mm).

Question 3 options:



Question 4 (2 points)

In a cell, phospholipids are largely used:

Question 4 options:

A) to make

B) to form
the membrane of the cell

C) to
organize the DNA of the cell

D) to
replenish amino acids

Question 5 (2 points)

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a plasma

Question 5 options:

A) It
contains peptidoglycan

B) It is
selectively permeable

C) It is
composed of a phospholipid bilayer

D) all of the
above are characteristic of a plasma membrane


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Question 6 (2 points)

Robert Koch’s postulates were designed to establish

Question 6 options:

A) that
viruses are much smaller than bacteria.

B) that all
living things are composed of cells.

C) a firm
foundation for the germ theory of disease.

D) that
spontaneous generation does not occur in nature.

E) the fact
that DNA is the genetic information in all cells.

Question 7 (2 points)

Viruses are composed largely of

Question 7 options:

A) a cell
membrane enclosing a mass of carbohydrate.

B) a piece
of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.

C) a mass of
cellular cytoplasm with no membrane.

D) a
chlorophyll-containing chloroplast surrounded by a cell wall.

Question 8 (2 points)

Which of the following statements is False.

Question 8 options:

A) Eukaryotic
organisms can be single-celled

B) Fungi are

C) Bacteria
lack a nuclear membrane

D) All
bacterial species are motile

Question 9 (2 points)

Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes
the “Germ Theory of Disease”?

Question 9 options:

A) germs are
found almost everywhere in the environment

B) viral
infections can sometimes lead to cancer

C) microbes
are capable of causing disease

D) good
hygiene will lead to better health

Question 10 (2 points)

Alexander Fleming is credited with the discovery of this
antibiotic in 1928.

Question 10 options:

A) Quinine

B) Tetracycline

C) Amoxicillin

D) Penicillin

Question 11 (2 points)

Compared to eukaryotic cells, bacteria are

Question 11 options:

A) contain an
increase number of chromosome

B) larger

C) less

D) more

Question 12 (2 points)

Which of the following terms best describes the arrangement
of bacterial flagella that extends from all sides of the bacterial cell.

Question 12 options:

A) Monotrichous

B) Peritrichous

C) Lophotrichous

D) Amphitrichous


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Question 13 (2 points)

Fungi are ____________.

Question 13 options:

A) Non-cellular

B) Prokaryotes

C) Algae

D) Eukaryotes

Question 14 (2 points)

Humans are ____________.

Question 14 options:

A) Eukaryotes

B) Prokaryotes

C) Algae

D) Non-cellular


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Question 15 (2 points)

Bacteria are ____________.

Question 15 options:

A) Prokaryotes

B) Algae

C) Non-cellular

D) Eukaryotes

Question 16 (2 points)

Viruses are ____________.

Question 16 options:

A) Non-cellular

B) Prokaryotes

C) Eukaryotes

D) Algae

Question 17 (2 points)

Which of the following is more closely related to protozoa
(in terms of cell structure)

Question 17 options:






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Question 18 (2 points)

Louis Pasteur found that gently heating a liquid kills
contaminating microbes and prevents spoiling. This process later became known

Question 18 options:

A) Purification.

B) Sterilization.

C) Sanitization.

D) Pasteurization.


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Question 19 (2 points)

During Pasteur’s
time, people struggled with the following theory that stated all life came from
previously existing life. This theory was known as:

Question 19 options:

A) Disease

B) Spontaneous

C) Germ

D) Biogenesis.


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Question 20 (2 points)

Which of the following illustrates the correct usage of
binomial nomenclature for bacterial genus and species?

Question 20 options:

A) Vibrio

B) Streptococcus

C) escherichia

D) Staphylococcus


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uestion 21 (2 points)

A prokaryotic cell that has a cell wall with peptidoglycan
but contains only one membrane is

Question 21 options:

A) Gram

B) Acid fast

C) Archaea

D) Gram


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Question 22 (2 points)

Which of the following statements is TRUE for the domain

Question 22 options:

A) Members
contain mitochondria

B) Members
consists of single-celled organisms

C) Members
may be single celled or multi-cellular organisms

D) Members
contain a nucleus surrounding their DNA


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Question 23 (2 points)

A viral genome may consist of

Question 23 options:

A) RNA only.

B) either

C) DNA only.

D) both DNA
and RNA.


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Question 24 (2 points)

Which of the following statements about Prokaryotic cells is

Question 24 options:

A) prokaryotes
are surrounded by cell walls.

B) prokaryotes
have ribosomes.

C) prokaryotes
have a nucleus.

D) prokaryotes
have DNA.

Question 25 (2 points)

You are given a new microbe to analyze in your research lab.
You discover that this microorganism is unicellular, contains a cell wall,
undergoes chemical metabolism, and lacks a membrane-bound nucleus. Based on
your findings, you conclude that this microorganism is most likely a:


Question 25 options:

A) Algae

B) Virus

C) Bacteria

D) Fungi


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Question 26 (2 points)

A cell’s genetic information is stored in the cell

Question 26 options:

A) polypeptides

B) nucleic

C) polysaccharides

D) phospholipids

Question 27 (2 points)

Based on your knowledge of cellular transcription and
translation, which of the following diagrams most accurately illustrates how
information is transferred from inherited genetic information to protein?

Question 27 options:

A) DNA >
Amino acids > mRNA

B) mRNA >
Amino acids > DNA

C) DNA >
mRNA > Amino acids

D) mRNA >
DNA > Amino acids


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Question 28 (2 points)

The mechanism of DNA replication is described as

Question 28 options:

A) Conservative.

B) Random.

C) Sporadic.

D) Semiconservative.


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Question 29 (2 points)

During protein synthesis, how many nucleotides does it take
to code for TWO amino acids.

Question 29 options:

A) 6

B) 3

C) 4

D) 2


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Question 30 (2 points)

Which of the following is not a type of RNA encoded for by

Question 30 options:

A) transcription

B) transfer

C) messenger

D) ribosomal


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Question 31 (2 points)

Place the following events of transcription in order:

1-Nucleotides are added to the mRNA molecule one by one.

2-RNA polymerase lands on the mRNA promoter.

3-The DNA helix partially unwinds.

4-The mRNA molecule leaves the DNA.

5-The RNA polymerase encounters the terminator sequence on
the mRNA

Question 31 options:

A) 1,2,3,4,5

B) 2,4,3,1,5

C) 3,4,2,5,1

D) 3,2,1,5,4


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Question 32 (2 points)

All the following are components of an RNA molecule except

Question 32 options:

A) cytosine.

B) guanine.

C) uracil.

D) thymine.


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Question 33 (2 points)

Amino acids are polymerized into long chains during:

Question 33 options:

A) translation

B) division

C) transcription

D) replication


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Question 34 (2 points)

The enzyme that synthesizes a single-stranded molecule of
RNA from a DNA template is:

Question 34 options:

A) reverse





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Question 35 (2 points)

The role of ribosomes is

Question 35 options:

A) To
synthesize a complementary strand of DNA using DNA as a template

B) To
synthesize proteins by assembling amino acids together into chains

C) To
synthesize a proteins by assembling nucleic acids together into chains

D) To
synthesize a complementary strand of RNA using DNA as a template

uestion 36 (2 points)

Refer to the codon chart above. A bacterial cell contains
the following mRNA sequence:

UCC GUU CAA GCG. Using the information provided in the
abbreviated Codon chart, determine the amino acid sequence of the resulting

Question 36 options:

A) Serine,
valine, serine, nonsense

B) Serine,
valine, glutamine, alanine

C) Alanine,
serine, valine, nonsense

D) Alanine,
serine, glutamine, serine

Question 37 (2 points)

Which of the following statements regarding bacterial
flagella is incorrect?

Question 37 options:

A) Flagella
are used for motility

B) Bacteria
can have many flagella.

C) Flagella
are long extensions from the cell surface

D) All
bacterial species are capable of producing flagella.


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Question 38 (2 points)

Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of

Question 38 options:

A) Gram
positive bacteria

B) Protozoa

C) Gram
negative bacteria

D) Gram
positive and Gram negative bacteria


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Question 39 (2 points)

The Gram stain differentiates between bacteria based on the
composition of their:

Question 39 options:

A) Cell

B) Mitochondria

C) Cell Wall

D) Nucleus

Question 40 (2 points)

What color do each cell type appear after Gram staining:
(Gram positive : Gram negative)

Question 40 options:

A) Pink :

B) Yellow :

C) Purple :

D) Blue :

Question 41 (2 points)

Most Bacterial cells reproduce primarily by which of the
following methods?

Question 41 options:

A) binary

B) all of
the above are possible

C) meiosis

D) mitosis

Question 42 (2 points)

How do Bacteria differ from Archaea?

Question 42 options:

A) the
composition of their cell wall.

B) the
presence of a plasma membrane.

C) the
presence of ribosomes.

D) their
ability to live in aqueous environments.

Question 43 (2 points)

Which of the following correctly describes binary fission?

Question 43 options:

A) When
bacteria use pili to pass DNA to a new daughter cell

B) When a
parent cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells

C) When
multiple chromosomes are divided and each new bacterial cell receives half the
genetic material

D) When
bacterial parent cells combine genetic material to produce a genetically
distinct daughter cell

Question 44 (2 points)

You are given a gene sequence that is 30 nucleotides in
length. You can predict that the protein resulting from transcription and
translation of this gene would contain _____ amino acids.

Question 44 options:

A) 90

B) 30

C) 60

D) 10

Question 45 (2 points)

During DNA replication, which of the following base pairing
rules apply?

Question 45 options:

A) C:T

B) U:G

C) G:T

D) A:U

E) A:T

Question 46 (2 points)

In DNA, nucleotids are always paired up using the following
rules: A bonds with T and C binds with G.

Question 46 options:




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uestion 47 (2 points)

Robert Koch is famous for the creation of this postulates.
What is the purpose of these postulates?

Question 47 options:

To prove that a microbe caused a specific disease

To prove that a vaccine is effective against a particular

To prove that certain symptoms are always associated with a
particular disease

To prove that viral disease can sometimes result in cancer

Question 48 (2 points)

This staining technique is used to differentiate bacterial
cells based on thickness of
peptidoglycan in their cell wall.

Question 48 options:

Endospore stain

Capsule stain

Acid fast stain

Gram stain

Question 49 (2 points)

Which of the following statements regarding the Gram
staining of bacterial cells is False

Question 49 options:

Gram negative cells have a thin layer of peptidoglycan in
their cell wall

Gram positive cells have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in
their cell wall

Gram negative cell stain purple

Gram positive cells stain purple

Question 50 (2 points)

When bacterial cells build proteins they do so by
polymerizing amino acids together.

Question 50 options:



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