- Read Chapters 4 and 5 your text and view the short video captures for these chapters under the Content module “Excel templates & text chapter videos”
- Do a practice problems 4-5 and 5-4 and check your solutions with those posted
- Individual Homework:Do problems 4-8 and 5-7 and post your solutions by 11:59 PM ET on the last day of the session
- Participate in this week’s discussion of the issues raised by your instructor
- Complete the formation of teams for the Group Projects.
Three-Step Process for Estimating a Firm’s WACC
Compano Inc. was founded in 1986 in Baytown, Texas. The firm provides oil-field services to the Texas Gulf Coast region, including the leasing of drilling barges. Its balance sheet for year-end 2006 describes a firm with $830, 541,000 in assets (book values) and invested capital of more than $1.334 billion (based on market values):
December 31, 2006
Balance Sheet Invested Capital
Liabilities and Owners’Capital (Book Values) (Market Values)
Accounts payable $ 8,250,000
Notes payable – –
Other current liabilities $ 7,266,000
Total current liabilities $ 15,516,000 $ –
Long-term debt (8.5% interest paid
Semiannually, due in 2015) $ 420,000,000 $ 434,091,171
Total liabilities $ 435,516,000 $ 434,091,171
Common stock ( $1 par value per share ) $ 40,000,000
Accumulated earnings 255,000,000
Total owners capital $ 395,025,000 $ 900,000,000
Total liabilities and owners’ capital $ 830,541,000 $ 1,334,091,171
Compano’s executive management team is concerned that its new investments be required to meet an appropriate cost of capital hurdle before capital is committed.
Consequently, the firm’s CFO has initiated a cost of capital study by one of his senior financial analysts, Jim Tipolli. Jim’s first action was to contact the firm’s investment banker to get input on current capital costs.
Jim learned that although the firm’s current debt capital required an 8.5% coupon rate of interest (with annual interest payments and no principal repayments until 2015), the current yield on similar debt had declined to 8% if the firm were to raise debt funds today. When he asked about the beta for Compano’s debt, Jim was told that it was standard practice to assume a beta of .30 for the corporate debt of firms such as Compano.
- What are Compano’s total invested capital structure weights for debt and equity?
- Based on Compano’s corporate income tax rate of 40%, the firm’s current capital structure, and an unlevered beta estimate of .90, what is Compano’s levered equity beta?
- Assuming a long-tern U.S. Treasury bond yield of 5.42% and an estimated market risk premium of 5%, what should Jim’s estimate of Compano’s cost of equity be if he uses the CAPM?
- What is your estimate of Compano’s WACC?
5.8 Divisional WACC
In 2006, Anheuser-Busch Companies Inc. (BUD), engaged in the production an distribution of beer worldwide, operating through four business segments: Domestic Beer, International Beer, Packaging, and Entertainment. The Domestic Beer segment offers beer under Budweiser, Michelob, Busch, and Natural brands in the United States, in addition to a number of specialty beers including non-alcohol brews, malt liquors, and specialty malt beverages, as well as energy drinks. The International Beer segment markets and sells Budweiser and other brands outside the United States and operates breweries in the United Kingdom and China. In addition, the International Beer segment negotiates and administers license and contract brewing agreements with various foreign brewers. The Packaging segment manufactures beverage cans and can lids for drink customers, buys and sells used aluminum beverage containers, and recycles aluminum containers. Finally, the Entertainment segment owns and operates theme parks.
In 2005, Anheuser-Busch reported the following segment revenues and net income.
($ millions) Domestic Beer International Beer Packaging Entertainment
Gross sales $ 10,121.00 $ 864.00 $ 1, 831.50 $ 904.40
Income before 2,293.40 70.10 120.40 215.10
Equity income – 147.10 – –
Net income $ 1,421.90 $433.70 $74.60 $133.40
Assume that you have been charged with the responsibility for evaluating the divisional cost of capital for each of the business segments.
- Outline the general approach you would take in evaluating the cost of capital for each of the business segments.
- Should the fact that $1,156 million of the Packaging segment’s revenues come from internal sales to other Busch segments affect your analysis? If so, how?
December 31, 2006
Liabilities and Owner’s Capital
= Value given in problem
= Formula/Calculation/Analysis required
Other current liabilities`
= Qualitative analysis or Short answer required
Total current liabilities
= Goal Seek or Solver cell
= Crystal Ball Input
Long-term debt (8.5% interest paid
semi-annually, due in 2015)
= Crystal Ball Output
Common stock ($1 par value per share)
Total owners’ capital
Total liabilities and owners’ capital
Capital Market Data
Treasury Bond Yield
Market Risk Premium
Unlevered equity beta (SIC 4924)
Yield on debt
Short-term interest bearing debt
New long-term debt total
Step 1: Evaluate the capital structure weights
Enterprise Value = Market Capitalization + Debt
Debt / Enterprise Value
Equity / Enterprise Value
Step 2: Estimate the costs of Financing
Debt (after taxes)
Levered equity beta
Step 3: Calculate the WACC
Capital Structure Weight
Source of Capital