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The following pages contain a recently submitted English 214 report,
which received an above-average grade. You will find notes about various
aspects of it on each of the facing pages. Study these notes carefully and try
to incorporate the requirements and recommendations into your own report. Note
that the instructions set out below sometimes differ from APA style guidelines
and from the model report on pages 338 to 354 in Successful Writing at Work. Where there are such differences, you
must always follow the instructions below.


1. General Formatting Guidelines

Use plain white A4-size paper.
Use a regular 12-point font such as Times New Roman or Calibri. You may
double-space the lines (APA recommendation) or use either 1.5 or 1.15 spacing
(214 recommendation). Set all four margins to 2.5 cm. (one inch). Type on one
side of the paper only. See also Successful
Writing at Work
, pp. 197-207.

2. Cover Page

At the top of the cover page write
the semester theme (20-point,
boldface, centered, and capitalized). About three or four lines below it, write
the title of your report using
capital letters for the main words only. Center and boldface your title; the
recommended font size is 32 points but this can be slightly larger or smaller
depending on the length of the title.

Your title should accurately
and succinctly describe the focus of
the report. Titles such as “The 2012 Financial Crisis” and “The
Uses of DDT” are not acceptable because they do not indicate a clear focus.Better
titles would be “The Role of the Banking Sector in the 2012 Financial
Crisis” and “The Benefits of Using DDT in Malaria Prevention.”
Your title should also show a clear link between your major and the semester’s

A few lines below the title, give
the writer’s details: your name, your
ID number, your section and serial numbers, and your major. All items are 16
points and centered.

At just below the mid-point of
the page, using a 14-point font, give the teacher’s
: his name followed by the title of the English course, and the
course code.

Towards the foot of the page,
write a descriptive abstract of
about 50 words; it should be10 points and single-spaced. Give it the heading
“Abstract.” End with the date of

Note that the cover page opposite
does not have a page number although
it does count in the overall pagination of the report. (See note 5 on

Do your best to make your title
page as neat, simple and attractive as
possible. Use plenty of white space, avoid using a colored or patterned background,
and do not place any illustrations on the cover.


the Adverse Health Effects of Dirty Electricity




Applied Electrical Engineering


Thomas Wilson

& Professional Communication



This report discusses the causes and the negative effects on health of
dirty electricity. Using some case studies,it suggests a number of solutions to
help eliminate or at least reduce the damage caused to human health.

6 November 2012


3. Table of Contents

A Table of Contents (TOC) shows
the range of the report and the sequence in which the information is presented
to the reader. It is essentially a shorter version of your final outline with
page numbers included.

Note the different typographyin the TOC to indicate
different levels. Certain parts of the TOC are capitalized and boldfaced. These
include prefatory elements like the
optional List of Illustrations, end
such as the Conclusion, Recommendations, and References, and all first-level section headings in the
body of the report. The sub-sections of the report (ie, second-level headings) are indented under the main sections with
only the first letter of each important word capitalized. Third-level headings are indented still further, are italicized,
and also follow the usual conventions of capitalization.

Every first-, second-, or
third-level heading in your report must be reproduced exactly in the TOC. In a relatively short report such as this
English 214 report, it is not necessary to include any fourth-level headings in
the TOC, even if they appear in the report text itself. When you come to edit
the final version of your report, be sure to check that the headings in your
TOC correspond to those in the report.

As with the rest of the report,
neatness and clarity are important. Leave plenty of white space around the
margins and between the items in the TOC. In the example opposite, “leader
dots” have been used to connect headings with page numbers, producing a
pleasing effect which also helps the reader.

4. Outline Notation

The APA style does not require outline notation in either the TOC or in
the report headings. However, it is required in your English 214 report. As you
will recall from Unit 1c, there are two well-known outline notation systems:
the traditional outline system (I.A.1.a) and the decimal system (; you
may use either of them, but always follow your teacher’s instructions.

5. Pagination

Number all pages except the
cover page. Use boldface Arabic numbers (ie, regular numbers such as 2, 3, and
4) from the TOC to the References. Center the page numbers at the foot of each
page. The simplest way to do this is to insert a footer. If you choose this
method, you can also click on the ‘Different First Page’ box in the Design tab
so that no page number will appear on the cover page.

6. Other Prefatory Parts

‘Prefatory parts’ are those
report elements that appear before the introduction. They include the cover
page, the TOC, a glossary, a list of illustrations, and a list of symbols.
Apart from the cover page and TOC, prefatory parts are optional so include them
only if they are necessary. For example, your report may contain many technical
terms. By defining these words in a glossary rather than having them intrude in
the text itself, you can make the report more readable. As a general rule, if
you have four or more illustrations, symbols, or technical terms that require
defining, you can list them in a prefatory element on the TOC page or the page
following the TOC. (See the list of illustrations opposite.)

Table of Contents

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS………..…………………………………………………… 2




III. REDUCING DIRTY ELECTRICITY………………………………………………….. 5

A. The GS

1. Case Study: Hypersensitivity…………………………………………………….. 6

2. Case Study: Multiple Sclerosis………………………………………………….. 6

3. Case Study: Diabetes………………………………………………………………. 7

B. Other
Devices…………………………………………………………………………………… 7

C. Individual Behavior
Changes……………………………………………………………… 8

CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………. 9


REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………10

List of Illustrations


Figure 1
The GS Filter: Front and Side……………………………………………………………….. 6

Figure 2
Response of a 42-year-old
male…………………………………………………………….. 6

Figure 3
Response of a 43-year-oldfemale………………………………………………………….. 7

Figure 4
The Microsurge
Meter………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Figure 5
The Effectiveness of xZubi……………………………………………………………………


Table 1 Symptoms of Dirty Electricity………………………………………………… 5



7. Introduction

The Introduction aims to give
the reader four pieces of information: some essentialbackground,a statement of the problem,
a specificpurposestatement, and
thescope of the report. For
additional information, see pages 325-326 in Successful Writing at Work. Note, however, that your English 214
introduction should not contain subheadings.


Background is likely to be the
largest element in the introduction but it should not exceed a couple of
paragraphs. If your background is longer than this, it is advisable to shift
the bulk of it into the Discussion (body) section of the report. Start the
background element of your introduction by telling your reader what your
subject is; then provide additional information such as definitions and
description or some historical and theoretical background; state also why your
topic is an important one. You may find that the content of this background
element is similar to the introduction of your progress report.


Your report will almost
certainly be discussing a particular problem. State it clearly and concisely.


Your purpose statement should
tell the reader what the report is specifically aiming to do. Like the problem
statement that precedes it, the purpose can usually be expressed concisely in a
single sentence.


The scope statement indicates
the limits of the report. It explains what areas are included in the report and
sometimes also mentions areas that are specifically excluded. You can further
define your scope by identifying the audience
that the report is aiming to inform.

Depending on the amount of
information to give, these four elements can be combined or dealt with in
separate paragraphs. If handled separately, do not give each element its own
section heading (cf. the introduction of the model report in Successful Writing at Work on pages

8. Headings

Note: these instructions do not
follow APA guidelines. All headings should be boldfaced and placed flush left.
All main (first-level) headings are fully capitalized. Subsections
(second-level headings) consist of upper- and lower-case letters. Third-level
headings should be italicized with upper- and lower-case letters. You are
unlikely to need fourth-level headings, but if you do, they should appear in
lower-case plain text.


Identify the four elements of an introduction in the paragraphs opposite, and
note what

element contains.

Identify some of the coherence devices used to connect sentences together.


This report is about the effects of dirty
electricity—also known as electrical pollution—on human health. Dirty
electricity does not appear often in the literature of electrical engineering
but its existence is widely accepted by the scientific community even if it is
also widely ignored. A rough definition of it would be the fluctuations in
electrical power that can harm health and damage electrical devices.Dirty electricity is a worldwide phenomenon whose effects are felt
by millions of people although people’s sensitivity to it varies from person to
person. Also, dirty electricity does not affect everybody in the same way.
Apart from individual differences between those affected, the consequences may
also depend on the distance a person is from the source or on the size of the
electrical frequencies in the device itself.

problem with dirty electricity is that the people affected by it usually are
not aware of the cause of their health problems. It cannot be seen, smelled,
heard, tasted or touched and yet it has its negative effects. Some people, for
example, may suffer from headaches, a ringing in the ears, an inability to
concentrate, or other much more serious illnesses such as cancer and
Alzheimer’s. So they carry on with their routine daily activities with no idea
why they feel the way they do. The purpose of this report, therefore, is to
highlight this ignored problem and to examine effective solutions.

This report is limited to a discussion of the
health effects of dirty electricity that stem from regular consumer devices
such as computers and mobile phones rather than large-scale sources such as
power lines. Also the report focuses on the negative effects on people rather
than the damage that can be caused to other electrical devices.It will be of direct relevance to the average electronics user, who
will be informed about the problem of dirty electricity and about ways to avoid
its negative impacts.


The sources of dirty electricity are
found everywhere, and have been increasing exponentially since electricity was
first used on a large scale. It began with the growth of high frequencies (that
is, those above 2kHz) with the invention of electricity itself (the 1900s) passing
through radio, radar and TV (the 1920s – 1950s) up to personal



9. Paragraph Indentations

The APA style recommends that
you indent your paragraphs one half inch (just over one centimeter). The right
edge should not be justified.

10. In-Text Citations

The report page opposite
contains four in-text citations:

The first (Havas, 2006, p. 259) is an example of paragraph documentation so
the citation is placed at the end of the paragraph outside the full stop. The
APA style does not require citations for paraphrases and summaries to indicate
the exact location of the original text (such as a page or paragraph number),
but this is a requirement in English 214.

The second (“Dirty electricity,” n.d., para. 4) is also the documentation for
an entire paragraph. The original document is a web source that has no author
or date. As a result, the citation starts with the first couple of words of the
article title in quotation marks and the abbreviation n.d. (“no date”). The paragraph number is given to help the reader
locate the original words quickly if he needs to.

The third citation refers to
Havas again. Only the page number is given in parentheses (p. 260) because Havas and the date of publication are mentioned
earlier in the sentence.

The fourth citation (as cited in
NFAM, n.d., p.2)
refers to the quoting of an original work in a
secondary source. If you wish to use a quotation that appears in one of your
secondary sources, mention the original writer and his work and then use the
words as cited in followed by the
details of the secondary source where the original words are quoted. See also
APA Quotation below.

11. APA Quotation

Your teacher will set
guidelines for the number and type of quotations you can make in your report.
As a general rule, you are allowed a maximum of three short quotations or one
short quotation plus one long quotation. Short quotations are fewer than forty
words each; long quotations are forty words or more. Short and long quotations
are formatted differently. (For a reminder about APA quotation, see Unit 1b, pp.

12. Topic sentences

Topic sentences at the start of
your paragraphs are a helpful aid for your readers. By announcing the main idea
of the paragraph, they prepare the reader for the content that follows. They
also help the writer to stay focused on a single idea, which gives the
paragraph “unity”

13. Starting a new section at the foot of a page

You do not have to start every
new section or subsection at the top of a new page. As long as there is
adequate space for the heading and at least two lines of text, a new section or
subsection can be started near the foot of a page. See opposite.


1. Locate
and evaluate the quotation. Is it justified in the context of the paragraph? Is
it incorporated grammatically into the rest of the sentence? Is it a short or
long quotation? Is it correctly documented and formatted?

Evaluate the three topic sentences of section I. Do their paragraphs have

and mobile phones (1970s – 1980s). Such personal electronic equipment is
increasing all the time, for example in the wireless routers that are now a
part of all home and work networks. In addition to thesedevices, dirty
electricity can also exist in distribution lines, for example in wires inside
houses and buildings or in transmission lines along the highways. (Havas, 2006,
p. 259)

What causes ordinary electronic
devices to fluctuate their energy levels and so generate dirty electricity?
Basically, it is the result of trying to be energy efficiency. Electronic
devices such as computers, TVs, and fluorescent light bulbs are intended to run
on a frequency of 60 hertz (“cycles per second”). However, to use energy more
efficiently, these devices turn off and on rapidly and frequently—sometimes
thousands of times per second—and this results in power fluctuations. These
microsurges divide up the hertz into rapid and very high frequencies, and it is
these high frequencies that enter the body and cause the problems. (“Dirty
electricity,” n.d., para. 4)

Avoiding dirty electricity is
virtually impossible. Even if someone doesn’t usepollutingdevices, dirty
electricity can enterthe home or work environment from neighboring buildings,
where they could be used without filters to reduce any potential damage. Dr.
Magda Havaz (2006),a scientist interested in dirty electricity, said that
almost every house in the world contains dirty electricity so it is a serious
global threat (p. 260). In addition, one of the first scientists to recognize
the dangers of dirty electricity,Dr. Robert O. Becker, stated in his 1990
book Cross Currentsthat “the
greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of
electromagnetic fields. I consider it to be far greater on a global scale than
warming” (as cited in NFAM, n.d., p.2).


Dirty electricity can cause multiple problems for people. These include fibromyalgia, attention deficit disorder,
asthma, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, and asthma. There are also cases
showinghow electrical pollution aggravates other pre-existing conditions such
as migraine headaches,Alzheimer’s disease, heart
disease, and



14. Illustrations

See also Successful Writing at Work, pp. 209-237.

Illustrations are either tables (the vertical and horizontal
presentation of data) or figures,
(which include graphs, photos, maps, charts, and clip art). Number your tables
and figures separately using Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on). Be sure to
give each one a concise descriptive heading which should be reproduced exactly
in your list of illustrations after the TOC. Place the table number and its
heading above the illustration; place
the figure number and heading below
it. The APA does not require an in-text citation after these headings but you
should supply one in your English 214 report in case your teacher wishes to
check the source.

Only use illustrations if they
are necessary and helpful to your report. Always refer to them explicitly in
your report and place the illustrations as close as possible to the text they
are intended to support. Try and keep your illustrations as clear and simple as
possible, eliminating any details that are not absolutely required. If
necessary, adjust the size of your illustrations so they make an attractive fit
with the rest of the page.

15. Elements of good writing

See also Successful Writing at Work, pp. 376-380.

It is important to divide your
report into sections, each one
dealing with a distinct element of the overall topic. These sections may also
require sub-sections and, in some cases, further subdivisions. As a general
rule, three levels of headings should be enough in a report of this length.
Also, use outline notation for every heading to help your teacher navigate
easily through the information..

Link together the ideas in your
sentences, paragraphs and sections to achieve a coherent flow of information. This can be achieved with, for
example, the use of transition words. Words such as “first,” and “next” show
chronology; “consequently” and “therefore” show a causal relation;
“nevertheless” and “however” show contrast; and so on. Pronoun reference,
parallel structures, and the intelligent repetition of key words also help to
achieve coherence.

Revise and edit your report
thoroughly to identify and correct ambiguous, missing or irrelevant information
and to achieve a more concise style. Adjust your style if necessary to achieve
the right tone, which should be
formal and non-combatitive (ie, not aggressive), even when your purpose is to
persuade rather than simply to inform. Choose your vocabulary carefully to avoid informal colloquialisms on the one
hand and technical jargon on the other.

Technical writing is concise. Revise your work to eliminate
needless repetitions and wordy expressions. For example, do not use an
expression like “based on the fact that” when “because” conveys the same
meaning; avoid redundant expressions such as “red in colour” and “a total of
four different groups.”

Choose the right sentence and paragraphlength. Overly
short sentences and paragraphs can make your writing seem disjointed while
long, complex ones often

lack clarity because the ideas
are buried in an excess of detail.


1. Vocabulary: replace the word “juice” (III, para. 1) with a more
formal word.

2. In the same paragraph, find one instance of wordiness and two


sclerosis. Children are particularly sensitive to dirty electricity,in
particular in the effect of hyper-activity that it can exert. In fact, studies
have shown how children’s behavior can be improved with a reduction in the
amount of dirty electricity being emitted in their environment. However, dirty
electricity affects everybody: males and females, young and old, and the
symptoms they suffer cover a very wide range. (Milham, 2010, para. 8). The
following table illustrates some of the main symptoms that some scientists
believe are caused by dirty electricity:

Table 1 Symptoms of dirty electricity
(NFAM, n.d, p. 2)




Headaches, dizziness, nausea,
insomnia, memory loss, irritability, depression, muscle and joint pain,
seizures, psychosis, stroke.


Palpitations, chest pain, low or high
blood pressure, slow or fast heart rate, shortness of breath.


Sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia,


Skin rash, itching, burning, facial


Pain or burning in the eyes, pressure
in/behind the eyes, deteriorating vision, floaters, cataracts.


Digestive problems, impaired sense of
smell, hair loss, ringing in the ears, nose bleeds, internal bleeding,


Owing to the fact that we have
almost total dependency on electricity to do everything from cooking meals,
heating and cooling our homes, providing entertainment, and helping us to
communicate, simply turning off the juice is not an option. Solutions that will
enable us to continue to use electricity but as safely as possible are
absolutely essential. This section of the report will set out some likely

A. The GS Filter

The GS filter has proven itself to
be the most effective device so far in combating dirty electricity. GS stands
for Graham Stetzer, the owner of Stetzer Electric Inc. and a co-inventor of the
device. His collaborator was Dr. Martin Graham, Professor Emeritus at



16. Grammar and sentence structure

See also Successful Writing at Work, pp. 41-47 and 380-387.

Faulty grammar and sentence structure create a bad impression in the
reader and, at worst, can affect the clear communication of ideas. A thorough
revision and editing of your work should be able to uncover the most common
grammar and sentence structure errors.

Always check subjects and verb to make sure that
they agree. Also, check that pronouns
agree with their antecedents. Read
carefully to detect any run-onor comma splice sentences (in which two
separate sentences are joined with a comma or with no punctuation at all).
Eliminate sentence fragments in
which sentences lack an essential element such as a main verb or subject.

The APA recommends that, where
a choice exists, use active verbs
rather than passive ones. For example, “the filter reduces dirty electricity”
is preferable to “dirty electricity is reduced by the filter.” Active verbs
tend to make the ideas clearer and the writing more authoritative. However, use
the passive if the action is more
important than the actor or if the actors are not known. For example, “the
experiment was conducted in the field” is preferable to an alternative that
uses an active verb.

17. Words or numerals

There are clear, but quite
complex, rules for when a writer should express numbers in words (“five”) and
when in figures (“5”). The following gives a few of the more common rules:

In general, use numerals for:

numbers 10 and above (28, 103,
897); for numbers that precede a unit of measurement (8 cm., 120 kg.); and for
mathematical expressions such as decimals (“3.06”, “8%”).

In general, use words for:

any number that begins a
sentence or heading; and for common fractions (“three quarters”).

Sometimes, a combination of words and numbers may be
required for clarity and readability:

“two 10-step plans,” “11
one-sentence paragraphs.”


1. Find a subject – verb disagreement in the first paragraph.

2. In section III.A.2, find an example of:

a. a sentence fragment

b. a pronoun – antecedent disagreement

c. the misuse of a numeral

3. Find examples of inconsistent line spacing in the page opposite.

Research Laboratory of the University of California (Havaz&Stetzer, 2004, para.
4). The invention of GS filterswerethe result ofnumerous studies and experiments,
carried out with the aim of preventing or at least reducing dirty electricity
to a minimum, and of hundreds of quality control tests to check its validity
and to verify its usefulness. The GS filter is simple to use: itplugs into a
wall socketfrom where it measures, filters and removes high-frequency ambient
radiation from household wiring(NFAM, n.d. p. 2).

which received an above-average grade.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image002.png”>

Figure 1 TheGS Filter: Front and Side

(Havaz, 2006, p.264)

1. Case study:

which received an above-average grade.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image004.png”>

Figure 2 Response of a 42-year-old Male (Havaz&Stetzer,
2004, para. 3)

The DS Filter, also
known as the “Stetzerizer,” has had proven success. In one case, a 42-year-old male
suffered from headaches, dental pain, a ringing in the ears, and a lack of
sleep. At first baffled by the causes of these symptoms, doctors eventually
narrowed them down to electrical hypersensitivity. They installed a GS filter
in his house, and readings of dirty electricity dropped sharply from 900 to 20
GS units. The man’s sleep improved and the other symptoms started to vanish. (Havaz&Stetzer, 2004, para. 3)

2. Case study: Multiple

A second example of
the effectiveness of the GS filter the case of a 43-year-old woman with multiple
sclerosis, who could only walk with the aid of a cane or zimmer-frame. After 13
GS filters were installed in various rooms inside their house, the readings of
dirty electricity dropped from 170 to 30 GS units. Within the first 24 hours
after installation, she could maintain her balance for short distances without
using the cane or zimmer-frame. After 1 week, her muscle weakness had decreased
gradually and she



18. Precision

Precision is very important in
technical writing. Ideas and factual information taken from sources must be
reported faithfully when you paraphrase, summarize and quote. Measurements must
be given exactly (not rounded off); statistical data, dates and names must be accurate.
Words must also be used precisely and defined if necessary. All technical
reports should be proofread carefully to eliminate errors.

Examples of imprecise words are
“good,” “bad,” “big” and “small.” Examples of imprecise numbers are “some time
ago,” “about one hundred,” and “quite a long distance away.” Writers tend to
use imprecise expressions when they do not know—and cannot be bothered to
discover—the accurate word or number. However, in technical writing, the
precise word and number is usually required so always make the extra effort to
find out the precise facts.

19. Relevance

When revising your report, it
is important to read it critically in order to find any content that is not
strictly relevant to the purpose. This is not always an easy task as some
information may superficially appear to be relevant. For example, in section
III.B opposite, the student writes about “other devices” similar to the GS
filter, and he provides an illustration of one of them in Figure 3. This is the
microsurge meter. This appears at first glance to be relevant to the purpose of
section III, which is to describe solutions. However, the microsurge meter is
in fact not a filtering device, like the GS filter, but simply a measuring
device. This should have been picked up during the revision stage and the
information about the microsurge meter removed and replaced by information
about a more relevant piece of equipment.


Section III.A.3 contains some
precise numbers but also three examples of imprecise language. Find them and
suggest what sort of content should replace them.

pain while walking. After two weeks, she was able to walk for long distances
without any help or support. Also, she could sleep comfortably. From week 3 to
week 6 there were random changes:an occasional returnofsome symptoms but in
general the trend in symptoms was downward. (Havaz&Stetzer, 2004, para. 6).

which received an above-average grade.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.png”>

Figure 3 Response of a 43-year old Female
(Havaz&Stetzer, 2004, para. 6)

3. Case study: Diabetes

Diabetes is known to be on the
increase all over the world but it had not until recently been connected with
dirty electricity. However, this case study demonstrates a strong connection
between blood sugar levels and dirty electricity and shows clearly how GS
filters give a positive effect. An 80-year-old female with diabetes installed some
GS filters in her home. This produced an almost immediate effect on the dirty
electricity, which dropped considerably. Second, after a comparatively short
time her blood sugar level fell to 119 mg/dl having been 171 mg/dl previously.This
had a very significant positive effect on her diabetes. (Havaz&Stetzer,
2004, para. 11)

B. Other Devices

which received an above-average grade.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.png”>which received an above-average grade.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.jpg” alt=”Description: meter%20measuring%20625×480.png”>

Figure 4TheMicrosurge Meter

(Havaz, 2006, p. 262)

GS Filter is not the only measuring device on the market. Another one is the
microsurge meter. Like the GS filter, it was also designed by Dr. Graham and
Mr.Stetzer. It can read up to 1999 GS units, and the acceptable average reading
of dirty electricity should be below 30 GS units.

(Havaz, 2006, p. 262)



20. Plagiarism

To avoid plagiarism, source
wording should be paraphrased and fully documented in your report. Neither of
these necessary actions was taken in the example below. The paraphrase is still
too close to the original wording and there is no in-text citation at the end
of the paragraph:

Original wording

By placing the DERF filters in
the wall outlets, they can filter the harmonic distortion (Dirty Electricity)
and other white noise frequencies on the line to produce a cleaner, more stable
electrical current for operation. The removal or filtering of Low Frequency,
Kilohertz range emissions are supposed to help in many ways electrically
sensitive people

Student’s paraphrase on p.8 of
his report

DERF, standing for Dirty
Electricity Removal Filter, is placed in a wall power outlet and from here it
can filter the dirty electricity and other so-called white noise frequencies in
the wiring to produce a much cleaner and much more stable electrical current.
This will have a benefit for people who are electrically sensitive.


DERF, which stands for Dirty
Electricity Removal Filter,can help those whose health is easily affected by
dirty electricity. By plugging a filter into a regular wall socket, users can
reduce fluctuations in the current, leading to increased current stability and
so to less harmful electrical pollution. (RealUVcorp, n.d., “How the filters,”
para. 2)

During the revision stage of
report writing, make frequent use of the originality checker posted on your
section’s Blackboard home page.

21. Biased sources

Your report is based almost
entirely on secondary sources, that is, sources you found in the Library or on
the Internet. It is important that you select the best sources you can, ideally
those written by experts in the field and published in reputable magazines,
journals and books. Be particularly suspicious of Internet web pages,
especially those set up by commercial enterprises and by single-issue activist
groups; these are quite likely to contain some bias. For example, the student
uses xZubi as an example of a device
that lowers emf radiation in cell phones. However, he has chosen the company’s
own website—www.xzubi.ca—for his information about this device. Further
Internet research about this device should have been done to check the
company’s high opinion of its own invention.

22. Third-person point of view

The use of the first person
(“I,” “my,” “we,” “our,” and so on) is acceptable in reports. The use of the
second person (“you” and “your”) should be avoided. In general, reports are
best written in the third person (“it,” “he,” “they,” “the problem”). This is
because the writer is usually not focused on himself or on the reader but on a
particular problem, object, or event. Be careful, therefore, when taking ideas
from magazine articles that give the reader advice about what or what not to
do. When paraphrasing, it is easy to retain the same grammatical structure as
the original and introduce “you” and command forms of verbs into your report.
Change such verbs to the third person or to the passive, as in the examples

Original: Switch off your devices when you’re
not using them.

Passive: Devices
should be switched off when they’re not being used.

Third person: Consumers should switch off their devices
when they’re not usingthem.


1. In section C opposite, find and correct examples of “you” verbs.

2. Is Figure 5 big, simple and clear enough to convey the intended information?

Two other useful devices that are similar
to GS filter are the DERF-50 filter and the xZubi filter. DERF, standing for
Dirty Electricity Removal Filter, is placed in a wall power outlet and from
here it can filter the dirty electricity and other so-called white noise
frequencies in the wiring to produce a much cleaner and much more more stable
electrical current. This will have a benefit for people diagnosed as
electrically sensitive.

Cell phone radiation is also
considered to be dirty electricity, so in order to reduce its damage one can
use xZubi. It is a disc that can be attached to the cell phone and it reduces
the bad effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) on the brain.


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Figure 5 The
Effectiveness of xZubi


Individual behavior changes

The devices described above have
been successful but prevention is always better than cure. There are many
actions that people can take by themselves to reduce their exposure to dirty
electricity. For example,one technical solution is to have larger-sized neutral
wires. The job of a neutral wire is to return any energy to its original source
but modern neutral wiring cannot handle the greater electrical loads that are
common today. As a result, the misdirected energy is emitted into the
environment, in homes and offices, where it can cause health damage. (“What
is,” n.d., para. 11)

Changing the wiring is not something
that average users can do but there are plenty of other actions they can take.
For example, replacing dimmer light switches with ordinary switches can reduce
the high frequency. Replacing a T.V monitor with an LCD screen will also reduce
dirty electricity. If it is possible,do not usea microwave oven or at least
stand five feet away from it because it produces large amounts of EMF radiation
(Malhim, 2010, para. 5). Also, users should avoid wireless whenever possible,
avoid Bluetooth headsets, unplug any devices that are not being used, and never
place a laptop on your lap. (Segell, n.d.) These are just a few things
everybody should be encouraged to do in their normal routines.



23. Conclusion

See Successful
Writing at Work
, pages 327 and 351. In general, your conclusion is the
place to summarize the key findings of your research. However, there are other
ways to conclude in addition to summarizing. For example, a pertinent quotation
can be a strong way to end; for a report about a particular problem, a look to
the future or an explicit warning can also be suitable endings. If your report
has only one or two recommendations, then place them in the conclusion rather
than in a separate Recommendations section.

24. Recommendations

See Successful
Writing at Work
, pages 327 and 351. Have a separate Recommendations section
if you have three or more recommendations to make. Typically, they are not
taken from your sources but come from your own thinking about the problem and
the solutions described in your report. As a result, there is likely to be
little or no documentation.

Recommendations are basically calls to
action. They should logically follow on from the conclusions you reached about
your research topic.

25. Avoiding Sexist Language

Avoid using masculine pronouns to express
ideas that apply to everybody, as in
the example below:

Every user should turn off his electrical device when he’s not using it.

There are several ways to avoid this, as
shown in the examples below:

Electrical devices should be turned off
when they’re not being used.

People should turn off their electrical
devices when they’re not using them.

Every user should turn off the electrical
device when it’s not in use.

Using “he or she” or “s/he” is best

Of course, sometimes the use of masculine
pronouns to refer to the entire group is acceptable, as in the example below:

At KFUPM, every student should register his courses before the start of the

Word Count

Do a word count to include all words from the
start of the introduction to the end of your conclusion/recommendations
section. The total should be 1500 or more. There is no official maximum limit
but your teacher may set one.


What does the student’s conclusion (opposite) consist of?

Do his recommendations make sense in the context of the report?

Find and correct an example of sexist language in the conclusion.


conclude, dirty electricity is a very serious problem facing ordinary people all
over the world wherever electricity is the source of energy. The topic has been
largely ignored by the scientific community in recent years but people are
slowly becoming more aware of it. Fortunately, some inventors and entrepreneurs
have already taken action and we now have devices with proven effectiveness. In
addition, there is a lot a person can do to protect himself although this is
becoming more difficult as our dependence on electrical gadgets increases.


the problem of dirty electricity is not going to be easy. People can no longer
live without their computers, mobile phones, TVs and iPads. However, the
following recommendations will help improve the situation for ordinary people.
Their implementation depends on the willingness of governments and health
agencies to take an active stand and on users themselves to give up some of the
conveniences they currently enjoy with their gadgets:

1. The scientific community, especially electrical
engineers, should be encouraged

to devote more research to the problem of dirty

2. The manufacturing sector should be encouraged to produce more GS
filters and

similar devices in order to increase the availability and decrease
the costs.

3. Filters should be provided free of charge to all schools and
universities and to all

government buildings.

4. Generous government subsidies should be provided to help reduce
the costs of

buying filters for ordinary people.

5. A publicity campaign using all the media should be started at
once to alert

ordinary people to the dangers present in their homes and workplaces
and to the

simple actions they should take to reduce their risk.

Word count: 2100



26. References


is no limit on the number of sources you can use to write your report but there
is a minimum requirement of six. For formatting style, refer to Unit 1b, pp.
18-24 and to Successful Writing at Work,
pp. 330-336. For an example of a reference list, see Successful Writing at Work, pp. 352-354.

your sources in alphabetical order according to the author’s family name (or
the title, if there is no author). Double-space, or use 1.5 line spacing,
between and within your references. Remember to insert a hanging indent for the
first line of each reference.


The References opposite have seven listed
sources, and two other sources were referred to in the report (see report page
8 above) but they do not appear in the References list. This is because those
in-text citationsrefer to an entire website rather than to a specific web page.
In such cases, the APA does not require the source to appear in the reference

When the author is a well-known
organization, it is permissible to abbreviate the full name (eg World Health
Organization) to its commonacronym
(WHO). See NFAM opposite (an acronym standing for National Foundation for
Alternative Medicine). The use of the acronym here is questionable as this
organization is not especially well known.

Two of the sources on the Reference list
opposite are by the same author, Havaz.
In such cases, follow these rules: With two or more one-author entries, order
the sources by date with the earlier source coming first: so Havaz, M. (2004)
precedes Havaz, M. (2005). However, if the same author appears as a co-writer
in another work, a one-author reference always precedes a multiple-author
reference even if the latter is chronologically earlier. So, in the example
opposite, Havaz, M. (2006) precedes Havaz, M., &Steltzer, D. (2004) despite
being published later.

Most of the sources opposite were found on
the Internet, as evidenced by the words “Retrieved from” in their references.
Your teacher may set requirements
regarding the type and quality of sources you may use. For example, he may
require you to use a variety of genres (journals, magazines, encyclopedias, books,
and so on), different media (print, Internet, video), and he may insist on all
sources having a recognizable author and date of publication. Several sources
opposite have neither a date nor an author.

Many URLs are long. If you need to break a
URL at one or more points, you may do so at a slash mark (/). (If no convenient slash mark is available, break
the line at a hyphen.)

The references for most Internet sources
will contain the URL. However, if
the source also has a DOI (“digital
object identifier”), the APA requires that you always use the DOI rather than
the URL. See also Unit 1b, pages 21-22.


1. Identify the reference opposite that is not in alphabetical order.

2. How many sources have neither a publication date nor an author?

3. Locate the source which has a digital object identifier.

4. Which URL opposite is not broken at a slash mark?


Dirty electricity explained. (n.d.).Retrieved from http://www.electrahealth.com/


Havaz, M. (2006). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Biological
effects of dirty electricity with emphasis on diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Electromagnetic
Biology and Medicine,25
, 259-268.doi: 10.1080/15368370601044192

Havaz, M., &Stetzer, D. (2004). Dirty electricity and electrical
hypersensitivity: Five case studies. World Health Organization Workshop on
Electrical Hypersensitivity
. Retrieved from http://www.getpurepower.ca/resources/


Milham, S. (2010).Dirty electricity: Electrification and the
diseases of civilization
. United States of America: iUniverse. Retrieved
from http://books.google.com.sa/


NFAM.(n.d.).The health effects of electrical pollution. Retrieved from http://www.


Segell, M. (n.d.).11 ways to protect yourself from
dirty electricity. Retrieved from


What is electrical pollution? (n.d.). Retrieved from







Finding, narrowing,
focusing a topic:__________________________________________
Student achieves suitable focus within time
allowed; effort made to integrate major and theme.

Adequate number of notes; correct format; neat;
condensed extracts; paraphrased; minimal SW; punctual completion.

Student develops initial rough
outline to produce formal, 2-level topic outline, then final 3- or 4-level

APA References:__________________________________________________________
Student produces list of sources
used; alphabetical order; neat; correct format; all cited sources included.

evaluations: _______________________________________________________
At least 4
evaluations: APA reference; article summary; article evaluation; punctual


Report background; purpose
statement; working bibliography; 2-level outline; schedule of work to complete

Other research


1. First Draft (10%):
Student is prepared for each
day’s in-class writing; bulk of draft completed in class (penalties for
substantial drafting at home); major-theme integration; informative; well
organized; minimal SW; documented; sources well integrated; appropriate vocab
and language use.

2. Revised & edited final draft (5%):
a. Revising: Evidence that student has corrected
first-draft errors; significant improvements made; complete revised draft.

________________________________________________________________________b. Editing: Punctual submission;
complete, professional-looking document (cover, TOC, intro, body,
conclusion/recommendations, APA references; well-formatted; appropriate length;
illustrations well integrated; student has cross-referenced report and sources.

3. Other:________________________________________________________________

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