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Literature Review Sources

Annotated #1 Alioto N. R. (2009). Unreasonable Differences:
The Dispute Regarding the Application of Terry Stops to Completed Misdemeanor
Crimes. St. John’s Law Review, 83945

In this article the author discusses the equality of all
citizens in the eyes of the law, with him stating that each person have certain
inherent rights that should not be violated by the government. The author
further challenges the assumption that these rights are applied equally to
everyone. The author further discusses the unsettled dispute by the Supreme
Court in which it has never squarely answered the question of whether a police
officer may seize an individual without probable cause in order to investigate
his or her involvement in a completed misdemeanor crime. In some jurisdictions,
such police action is held to be a per se constitutional violation. In other
jurisdictions, this same police activity has been held constitutionally
permissible. This article is relevant to my study because it discusses the
constitutionality of stop question and frisk and how it is applied across
different jurisdictions.

Annotated # 2 Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing
race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social
Justice, 156-176.

In this article the author attempts to link race, space, and
policing to the legally sanctioned racial discrimination and residential
segregation of African Americans and the development of policing. The author
concludes that most policing policies are racially neutral. However, the author
found that because police officers have a lot of discretion and that there is a
perception among minorities that they do not benefit from police officers
discretion on minor offenses, the y tend to concludes that the system of
policing is biased.

Annotated # 3 Bellin, J. (2014). The Inverse Relationship
between the Constitutionality and Effectiveness of New York City “Stop and
Frisk”. Boston University Law Review, 94(5), 1495-1550. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1626355712?accountid=458

In this article the author discusses how the NYPD exploits
and at times violates the 4th Amendment of the Constitution while placing the
burden of crime control only on minority communities. The NYPD uses Stop
Question and Frisk as a deterrent to prevent people from carrying guns.
However, the author posits that this procedure is overwhelmingly used in
minority neighborhood outside of its constitutional guidelines. The author
concludes that this approach to policing need to be rethought because it is
ineffective and a violation of the constitution.

Annotated # 4 Ben-Porat, G., Yuval, F. (2012). Minorities in
democracy and policing policy: from alienation to cooperation. Policing and
Society, 22(2), 235-252.

This article examines the tense relations between the
Israeli police and the Arab citizens of Israel. The article posits that
policing provides a challenge in democracies with diverse societies where
cultures, religions and competing national identities challenge the existing order,
and where the police in many cases have yet to develop the capabilities to
engage with diversity and overcome its own biases and prejudices in order to
better serve minorities. While police officers and policy-makers may be aware
of the need to initiate reform in order to succeed, they need to identify the
actual needs of minorities. In this study of police reforms in Israel vis-à-vis
the Arab minority, proposes a bottom-up study of the potential impact of three
types of reforms: recruitment of Arab citizens to the police, cultural training
of police officers and institutionalizing police-community relations. The
author findings were based on two complementary stages of research, four focus
groups and a comprehensive research survey of a representative sample of 1006
adult Arab citizens.

Annotated # 5 Bjerregaard, B. (2003). Anti-gang legislation
and its potential impact: The promises and the pitfalls. Criminal Justice
Policy Review, 14(2), 171-192.

The purpose of the article is to examine the approach taken
by state legislatures to make participating in gang activities a substantive
crime. This approach will be analyzed in terms of its potential effectiveness
as well as its potential for abuse and discriminatory application and
suggestions for improving existing statutes will be offered. This article
addresses developing strategies for addressing the problem of gang-related
criminal behavior. The article suggests that legislatures need to enhance
traditional criminal laws and draft new legislation aimed specifically at
alleviating the gang problem. The author explains how California led the charge
on enacting this type of legislation to combat gang violence and numerous other
states followed suit.

Annotated # 6 Brown, JR., O. (2013). The Legal Murder of Trayvon
Martin and New York City Stop-and-Frisk Law: America’s War against Black Males
Rages On. Western Journal of Black Studies, 37(4), 258-271.

The author of this paper explores the practice of demonizing
black American males. The recent legal murder of Trayvon Martin and the New
York City anticrime program called Stop-and-Frisk are used to illustrate how
America, at the local level, continues to utilize legal measures to perpetuate
the subjugation of black males. Emphasis is thus placed on challenging the
spurious links between race and crime. The author uses W.E.B. DuBois’ classical
analysis of black Philadelphians to demonstrate that race continues to be
consequential in contemporary America, despite the re-election of President
Barack Obama.

Annotated # 7 Brunson, R. K. (2007). “police don’t like
black people”: African‐American young men’s accumulated police experiences*.
Criminology & Public Policy, 6(1), 71-101.

This study examined 40 African-American young men’s direct
and vicarious experiences with police harassment and violence, and their impact
on perceptions of police. Study findings highlight the value of using
comprehensive and nuanced measures of police citizen encounters and underscore
the importance of examining the impact of accumulated adverse experiences. The
results of this study suggest that there is a need for improvement in police
oversight policies. The study concludes that police organizations should work
toward developing complaint review processes that are not merely accessible to citizens
but also inspire confidence among them and that these types of efforts are crucial toward improving the image of
police in minority communities and positively impacting citizen trust of, and
satisfaction with, the police.

Annotated # 8 Brunson, R. K., Miller, J. (2006). Young black
men and urban policing in the United States. British Journal of Criminology,
46(4), 613-640.

The study suggests that people of color living in
disadvantaged urban communities have been shown to be the disproportionate recipients
of both proactive policing strategies and various forms of police
misconduct. The study attempts to
examine the relationship between blacks’ experiences with the police and their
perceptions of police legitimacy. The researcher conducts a qualitative study
of violence in the lives of African-American youths from a distressed urban
community, by examining 40 young men’s experiences with and perceptions of
police harassment and misconduct. The study concludes that young men’s sense of
themselves as symbolic assailants in the eyes of the police, suggest the
importance of measuring the impact of accumulated negative experiences to
better understand minority/police relations, and add additional currency to
recent findings on the significance of procedural justice.

Annotated # 9 Capers, I. B. (2009). Policing, race, and
place. Harv. CR-CLL Rev., 44, 43.

The author of this article discusses a component of
segregation that has been largely ignored: the significant role that criminal
law and procedure have played, and continue to play, in maintaining racialized
spaces. The author posits that most Americans live in neighborhoods and
communities segregated along racial lines, and take this segregation for
granted. The author posits that in order for society to achieve our goal of a
more perfect union where true racial equality exists, it is critical that we
examine and understand the link between policing, race, and place. The author
concludes that spatial separateness allows social relationships to be structured
along racial lines, which in turn has the effect of perpetuating and
reinforcing social and economic inequality.

Annotated # 10 Close, B. R., & Mason, P. L. (2007).
Searching for efficient enforcement: officer characteristics and racially
biased policing. Review of Law & Economics, 3(2), 263-321.

This study investigates whether racial and ethnic
differences in police searches of stopped drivers reflect efficient enforcement
or biased policing. The study use a Null hypotheses consistent with efficient
enforcement are derived from alternative assumptions regarding police
objectives. The study concludes law enforcement officers display both personal
and police cultural bias in their propensity to search African American and
Latino drivers. African American and Latino status tends to lower the guilt
signal required for police suspicion and that white officers police differently
than their African American and Latino colleagues.

Annotated # 11 Donohue III, J. J., Levitt, S. D. (2001). The
Impact of Race on Policing and Arrests*. Journal of Law and Economics, 44(2),
367-394.

In article the authors examine the relationship between the
racial composition of a city’s police force and the racial patterns of arrests.
Race has long been recognized as playing a critical role in policing. In spite
of this awareness, there has been little previous research that attempts to
quantitatively analyze the impact of officer race on tangible outcomes. The
study concludes that Increases in the number of minority police are associated
with significant increases in arrests of whites but have little impact on
arrests of nonwhites. Understanding the reasons for this empirical regularity
and the consequent impact on crime is an important subject for future research.

Annotated # 12 Durkin, E. (2013) Study finds stop-and-frisk
leads to mistrust of cops, unwillingness to cooperate with police Retrieved
from:
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/stop-and-frisk-leads-mistrust-cops-study-article-1.1460528#ixzz2nIaxcGZc

The article addresses a study about the NYPD policy of
stop-and-frisk policing. The purpose of the study was to ascertain if stop
question and frisk creates mistrust of cops among the young adult male
population in New York City, causing them not to report violent crimes even when
they are the ones victimized. The study was conducted to investigate if there
is a correlation between those who have been stopped and frisked, and an
unwillingness to cooperate with the police.

Annotated # 13 Engel, R. S., Calnon, J. M., Bernard, T. J.
(2002). Theory and racial profiling: Shortcomings and future directions in
research. Justice Quarterly, 19(2), 249-273.

This article reviews recently published studies on racial
profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions. Using the conceptual
framework for police research presented by Bernard and Engel, it reviews a
number of theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police
stops. The authors argue that to explain police behavior better, theoretical
models must guide future data collection efforts.

Annotated # 14 Eterno, J. A., Silverman, E. B. (2006). The
New York City police department’s COMPSTAT: dream or nightmare?. International
Journal of Police Science & Management, 8(3), 218-231.

The article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of
COMPSTAT as it pertains to crime reduction in NYC. It highlights how COMPSTAT
as revolutionized the way policing is accomplished in democratic countries. The
article further states that the strengths of COMPSTAT have been widely
publicized. However, its weaknesses are not addressed and glossed over when
they should not be, because its weakness impacts the relationship between
police and the community and affects due process. The authors posit that these weakness
pose challenges and they present an alternative model to address these
weaknesses. The authors recommendation focuses on integrating community
policing’s essential components within the context of the COMPSTAT paradigm.

Annotated # 15 Fagan, J., Geller, A., Davies, G., West, V.
(2010). Street Stops and Broken Windows Revisited. Race, ethnicity, and
policing: New and essential readings, 309-348.

In this article, the authors are updating and extending
earlier research on order maintenance policing in New York City in order to
explain temporal and spatial patterns of police stops of citizens from 1999 to
2006. The authors estimate stop rates by neighborhood as a function of local
crime rates, neighborhood demography and social structure, and physical disorder,
including direct measures of broken windows. The article reports that an
increase in stop activity since 1999 is concentrated in predominantly poor and
minority neighborhoods, and that these stops continue to be more closely tied
to demographic and socioeconomic conditions than to disorder or crime. The
authors posits that there is no reliable evidence that these tactics are either
efficient or effective crime reduction measures and attribute the excess stops
to institutional management concerns, such as productivity and supervision or
intelligence gathering, at the expense of the City’s minority citizens. The
authors surmise that the racial-spatial concentration of excess stop activity
threatens to undermine police legitimacy and diminish the social good of
policing, while doing little to reduce crime or disorder.

Annotated # 16 Fagan, J., Davies, G. (2000). Street stops
and broken windows: Terry, race, and disorder in New York City. Fordham Urb.
LJ, 28, 457.

In this article the author discusses policing and the Broken
Windows Theory. The authors suggests
that policing is not about disorderly places, nor about improving the quality
of life, but about policing poor people in poor places. The author posits that this
strategy contradicts the policy rationale derived from Broken Windows theory,
and deviates from its original emphasis on community conditions by instead
focusing disproportionately on minority citizens. The Author further states that racially
disparate policing reinforces perceptions by citizens in minority neighborhoods
that they are under non-particularized suspicion and are therefore targeted for
aggressive stop and frisk policing. The
authors conclude that such broad targeting raises concerns about the legitimacy
of law, threatens to weaken citizen participation in the co-production of
security, and undercuts the broader social norms goals of contemporary policing

Annotated # 17 Fagan, J., & Meares, T. L. (2008).
Punishment, deterrence and social control: The paradox of punishment in minority
communities. Ohio St. J. Crim. L., 6, 173.

In this article the authors discusses the growth of
imprisonment in the United States of America of African-American and Hispanic
men from poor communities in urban areas.
The authors posit that the rising incarceration should have greatly
reduced the crime rate and that the failure of crime rates to decline
commensurately with increases in the rate and severity of punishment reveals a
paradox of punishment. The authors posits that the long-term and spatially
concentrated shift of social and economic resources from informal social
controls to formal legal controls, particularly incarceration, weakens
localized informal social controls and creates recurring cycles of dis-control.
The authors conclude that as the social and cultural distance between the
punishers and the punished widens, respect for the legitimacy of punishment
suffers. Dissatisfaction with both procedural and distributive justice can
motivate legal cynicism and noncompliance, and these processes are intensified
in contexts of weak social control and high legal control.

Annotated # 18 Ferguson, Guthrie, A. (2012). Predictive
Policing and Reasonable Suspicion. Emory Law Journal, 62(2), 259-325.

This article explores patterns of police, stop, Question and
frisk activity across New York City minority neighborhoods. While Broken
Windows theory may account for higher stop and frisk activity for quality of
life crimes, the authors suggest neighborhood characteristics like racial
composition, poverty levels, and extent of social disorganization are strong
predictors of race- and crime-specific stops. The authors consider whether
street-stops in various neighborhoods comply with the Terry standard of
reasonable suspicion as insight into the social and strategic meaning of
policing. Their empirical evidence suggests policing focuses on policing poor
people in poor places. Their strategy departs from Broken Windows theory by
concentrating on people and not disorder. They suggest racially disparate
police targeting raises concern about legitimacy of law, weakens citizen
cooperation with police, and undermines the social goals of policing.

Annotated # 19 Forman Jr, J. (2004). Community Policing and
Youth as assets. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1-48.

In this article, Forman argues both that there is much to be
said for community policing and that it has not reached its potential. He
alludes to the fact that it has been over a decade after since community
policing was introduced, and it remains the as most important innovation in
American policing today. Those who seek new ways for inner-city communities to
mobilize against disorder and crime support it. The author concludes that in
order for community policing to be effective and successful young people must
be brought to the table and included in the agenda setting for community
policing process.

Annotated # 20 Gabbidon S, Higgins G, Wilder-Bonner K. Black
Supporters of Racial Profiling: A Demographic Profile. Criminal Justice Policy
Review [serial online]. July 2013;24(4):422. Available from: Publisher Provided
Full Text Searching File, Ipswich, MA.

This study analyzed a national Gallup poll that included
measures on profiling and had a significant number of Black respondents (N =
534). The study represents an objective attempt to explore black support for a
policing strategy that has both historically and contemporarily had negative
effects on Black communities. This article explores the backgrounds of Blacks
who support the practice of racial profiling (referred to as Black Supporters).
The study concludes blacks as a collective group are less supportive of racial
profiling than other ethnic groups.

Annotated # 21 Ferrandino, J. (2013). The Efficiency of
Frisks in the NYPD, 2004–2010. Criminal Justice Review, 38(2), 149-168.

This study use the
approach of policy outcome analysis and technical efficiency by
employing a pooled data envelopment analysis of all Stop, Question, and Frisk
data from all NYPD precincts from 2004 through 2010 (3,410,300 total stops
resulting in 1,721,955 total frisks). The results reveal that the NYPD input is
inefficient in many precincts (mean IOTA score = .40) but slightly more output
efficient (mean IOTA score = .50). According to the input-oriented results (the
equity side), there should have been 1,091,846 fewer frisks given the outputs
produced (arrests, guns, and contraband), and the output-oriented results
(effectiveness side) suggest the NYPD should have produced 179,056 more
arrests, found 6,306 more pistols and found 59,883 more instances of contraband
to be technically efficient, given the level frisks throughout the NYPD. Though
a certain amount of inefficiency is enshrined in the frisk decision, these
results are placed in the context of police actions and outcomes in the NYPD
over this time period, and are used to inform both sides of the current debate.
The study concludes that the inputs are much larger than the outputs,
illustrating that the New York Police Department (NYPD) stop and frisk policy
is not as effective as it is portrayed.

Annotated # 22 Gau, J. M., Corsaro, N., Stewart, E. A.,
Brunson, R. K. (2012). Examining macro-level impacts on procedural justice and
police legitimacy. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(4), 333-343

This article discusses the procedural justice model of
police legitimacy and its potential impact of neighborhood- and community level
factors on people’s perceptions of procedural justice or police legitimacy. The
study couples macro-level policing literature with the psychological-based
procedural justice framework to uncover what effects, if any, the
socio-structural environment has on procedural justice and police legitimacy.
The study was conducted in a midsize using census and survey data in a
hierarchical linear model. The results of the study illustrates that there that
concentrated disadvantage exerted a marginally-significant impact on procedural
justice, and on police legitimacy while controlling for procedural justice and
that procedural justice remained the strongest predictor of legitimacy, even
when accounting for macro-level characteristics. The author concludes that the
effect of procedural justice on police legitimacy appears to be robust against
the deleterious impacts of concentrated disadvantage

Annotated # 23 Gau, J. M., Brunson, R. K. (2010). Procedural
justice and order maintenance policing: A study of inner‐city young men’s
perceptions of police legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 255-279.

This paper examines young men’s self-described experiences
with proactive policing. Research has shown that citizens’ perceptions of
procedural justice influence their beliefs about police legitimacy, yet at the
same time, some order maintenance policing efforts stress frequent stops of
vehicles and persons for suspected disorderly behavior. Citizens stopped for
low-level offenses may view such stops as a form of harassment, as they may not
believe they were doing anything to warrant police scrutiny. The study
concludes that order maintenance policing strategies have negative implications
for police legitimacy and crime control efforts because of order maintenance
approach potential to damage citizens’ views of procedural justice.

Annotated # 24 Geller, A., Fagan, J. (2010). Pot as pretext:
Marijuana, race, and the new disorder in New York City Street Policing. Journal
of Empirical Legal Studies, 7(4), 591-633.

The authors examines Order Maintenance Policing strategy and
stop, question, and frisk tactics in street enforcement, and the aggressive
targeting of low-level misdemeanors such as marijuana possession and trespass,
to discern if this tactic is being used as a pretext to stop minority males in
New York City even though possession of small quantities of marijuana has been
decriminalized in New York State since the late 1970s.

Annotated # 25 Gelman, A., Fagan, J., Kiss, A. (2007). An
analysis of the New York City Police Department’s “stop-and-frisk” policy in
the context of claims of racial bias. Journal of the American Statistical
Association, 102(479).

The authors conducted an analysis of the NYPD Stop Question
and Frisk policy so ascertain if there was bias in its use. The authors
discovered that police stop persons of racial and ethnic minority groups occurs
more often than whites relative to their proportions in the population. The
author acknowledges that the stop rates more accurately reflect rates of crimes
committed by each ethnic group, or that stop rates reflect elevated rates in
specific social areas, such as neighborhoods or precincts. In their analysis the authors used
hierarchical multilevel models to adjust for precinct-level variability, thus
directly addressing the question of geographic heterogeneity that arises in the
analysis of pedestrian stops. The authors concluded that persons of African and
Hispanic descent were stopped more frequently than whites, even after
controlling for precinct variability and race-specific estimates of crime
participation.

Annotated # 26 Grano, A. (2013).Casual or Coercive?
Retention of Identification in Police Citizen Encounters. Columbia Law Review,
1131283

The author discusses the controversy surrounding the show me
your papers provision, recently upheld in Arizona v. United States. The author
states that this ruling exemplifies public concern over police-citizen
encounters and the role of identification documents in those interactions. The
author highlights a long standing and continuing disagreement between the
Fourth and D.C. Circuits over the appropriate standard for police handling of
these documents. The standard governs a seemingly minor act: police retention
of identification during the lowest level of police-citizen engagement, the
casual encounter.

Annotated # 27 Hyunseok Jang, Hoover, Larry T., Hee-Jong,
JooAn. (2010). Evaluation of COMPSTAT’s Effect on Crime: The Fort Worth
Experience. Police Quarterly 13: 387 DOI: 10.1177Letter:

In this study the authors examines the effectiveness of
COMPSTAT as implemented by the Fort Worth (Texas) Police Department (FWPD).
Using monthly time-series arrest and crime data over a multiyear period, the
study examines whether COMPSTAT engendered a significant increase in broken
windows arrests (minor nuisance offenses) and, using multivariate time-series
analysis, the role of the COMPSTAT strategy in explaining changes in violent,
property, and total index crimes.

Annotated # 28 Jackson, A. L., Wade, J. E. (2005). Police
perceptions of social capital and sense of responsibility: An explanation of
proactive policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies
& Management, 28(1), 49-68.

In this paper the author discusses the relationship between
social capital and police officers, their sense of responsibility and its
impact on proactive policing. The author conducted surveys of 353 police
officers from a mid-Western police agency using structural equation modeling to
examine the relationship between social capital and proactive policing and the
mediating impact of police sense of responsibility for explaining proactive
policing. The author discovered social
capital demonstrates a significant relationship with both sense of
responsibility and proactive policing. The limitation of this research is that
it was skewed toward reflecting the perceptions of younger officers. The author
concluded that there is no data provided to indicate whether police opinions
and behavior might change if their job assignments were different.

Annotated # 29 Jones-Brown, D. D. (2000). Debunking the Myth
of Officer Friendly How African American Males Experience Community Policing.
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 16(2), 209-229.

This article discusses the results of a the results of a
survey of 125 high school African American males regarding attitudes toward and
contacts with the police. After the interviews were conducted the results
suggests that personal interaction with the police is not the sole or primary
determinate of juvenile attitudes. The study concludes that attitude formation
is a complex process involving both direct and indirect police contact because
a majority of the males reported experiencing the police as a repressive rather
than facilitative agent in their own lives and in the lives of their friends
and relatives.

Annotated # 30 Liqun, C. (2011). Visible Minorities and
Confidence in the Police. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal
Justice, 53(1), 1-26. doi:10.3138/cjccj.53.1.1

In this article the author examines the impact of belonging
to the category of visible minorities on citizens’ confidence in the police.
The author utilized theories to predict that visible minorities had a lower
confidence in the police. The author conducted multivariate analyses to show
that members of visible minorities had lower levels of confidence than
non-members of visible minorities, even after the effects of perceptions,
community contexts, and crime-related variables were controlled for. The small
but persistent effect of visible minorities raises questions about race
relations in Canada. The author concludes that equal racial confidence in the
police is yet to be achieved and continued reform measures are needed if the
police force is to win the hearts and minds of visible minorities in Canada.

Annotated # 31 Persico, N. (2002). Racial profiling,
fairness, and effectiveness of policing. The American Economic Review, 92(5),
1472-1497.

In this article the author discusses the disparate impact
that law enforcement practice has on the various ethnic groups. The author
acknowledges that citizens of two groups may engage in crime, depending on
their legal earning opportunities and on the probability of being audited. The
author further states police behavior is would be fair if both groups are
policed with the same intensity. The author concludes that racial disparities
are unfortunate but are not illegal if they are an unavoidable byproduct of
effective policing.

Anotated # 32 Petrocelli, M., Piquero, A. R., Smith, M. R.
(2003). Conflict theory and racial profiling: An empirical analysis of police
traffic stop data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(1), 1-11.

The study uses data collected by the Richmond, Virginia
Police Department about police traffic stops and applied conflict theory to
police traffic stop practices. The study explores whether police traffic stop,
search, and arrest practices differ according to racial or socioeconomic
factors among neighborhoods. The study found that that the total number of
stops by Richmond police was determined solely by the crime rate of the
neighborhood, the percentage of stops that resulted in a search was determined
by the percentage of Black population and when examining the percentage of
stops that ended in an arrest or summons, the analyses suggest that both the
percentage of Black population and the area crime rate served to decrease the
percentage of police stops that ended in an arrest or summons.

Annotated # 33 Reitzel, J., Piquero, A. R. (2006). Does it
exist? Studying citizens’ attitudes of racial profiling. Police Quarterly,
9(2), 161-183.

The article discusses the controversial issue of the use of
racial profiling in policing, in which the NYPD uses race to stop, search,
question, or frisk citizens. Currently, only a small amount of empirical
research exists concerning the practice of racial profiling. The author posits
that empirical evidence that does exist has shown substantial minority
over-representation in both police stops and searches. In this study, the
authors use data from a random sample of New York City residents to study their
perceptions of and experiences with racial profiling. The authors concluded
that racial profiling does exists but its justified based on the demographics
of the suspects that commits the majority of crimes.

Annotated # 34 Ridgeway, G. (2007). Analysis of racial
disparities in the New York Police Department’s stop, question, and frisk
practices. Rand Corporation.

The purpose of this was to study was to determine if the
NYPD, Stop Question and Frisk program raced was based and overwhelmingly
targeting Black and Hispanic you males. The RAND Corporation conducted this
study to help the NYPD gain a clearer understanding of this issue and identify
recommendations for addressing potential problems identified in the
analysis. To examine the issue, RAND
researchers analyzed data on all street encounters between NYPD officers and
pedestrians in 2006, more than 500,000 stops that officers documented in SQF
report worksheets (NYPD Unified Form 250 or UF250

Annotated # 35 Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R., Rengifo, A. F.
(2007). The impact of order‐maintenance policing on New York City homicide and
robbery rates: 1988‐2001*. Criminology, 45(2), 355-384.

The authors in this study investigates the effects of
order-maintenance arrests on precinct-level, robbery and homicide trends in New
York City with more reliable crime and arrest data, longer time series, and
more extensive controls for other influences than used in prior research. This
research was conducted due to the historic crime reductions in NYC in recent
times when compared with crime statistics from earlier periods. These crime
reductions were attributed to the use of the Order Maintenance Method of
policing by police officials and politicians. The authors concluded that there
was a statistically significant but small crime-reduction effect as a result of
OMP and conclude that the impact of aggressive order enforcement on the reduction
in homicide and robbery rates in New York City during the 1990s was modest at
best.

Annotated # 36 Rosenfeld, R., Rojek, J., Decker, S. (2011).
Age matters: Race differences in police searches of young and older male
drivers. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 0022427810397951.

In this article the authors discusses age and race as it
pertains to car stops and discretionary searches by the police. The authors
argue that race differences in police searches depend on the driver’s age. The
author conducted the study by using logistic regression and propensity-score
matching analyses of St. Louis police traffic stops, The authors found that
young Black males are subjected to discretionary searches at higher rates than
are young White males. By contrast, among drivers age 30 and older, Black males
are no more likely, and in some analyses are less likely, than White males to
be subjected to a discretionary search. The conclusion of the authors, are
consistent with studies of young Black males’ negative experience with and
attitudes toward the police.

Annotated #38 Segal, J. (2012). “All of the Mysticism
of Police Expertise”: Legalizing Stop-and-Frisk in New York, 1961-1968.
Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 47(2), 573-616

In this article the author discusses the enactment of the
New York State stop-and-frisk statute two years after the Supreme Court ruled
on the admissibility of evidence in Mapp V. Ohio. The statute authorized police
officers to stop and question individuals suspected of past, present, or
potential criminal conduct and, when officers reasonably suspected danger,
conduct a limited search for weapons. The law rendered the limits of such a
search. This article is relevant to my study because it discusses the legal
framework for Stop Question and frisk and the legal limitations to stop
question and frisk.

Annotated # 39 Simmons, K. C. (2014). The Legacy of Stop and
Frisk: Addressing the vestiges of a violent police culture. Wake Forest Law
Review, 49(3), 849-872.

The author discusses the features, purpose and significance
of implementing the stop-and-frisk policy by the police to prevent and
investigate crime in New York City. The author suggests that the New York City
Police Department’s aggressive police strategies had created inherent violence,
imposes unfair burdens on residents, and undermines the legitimacy of law
enforcement. The article discusses the judicial decision of the U.S. Supreme
Court in Terry v. Ohio case under the New York Criminal Code. The Terry case
was the precedent setting United States Supreme Court case on investigative
police stops.

Annotated # 40 Smith, M. R., Petrocelli, M. (2001). Racial
profiling? A multivariate analysis of police traffic stop data. Police
Quarterly, 4(1), 4-27.

The authors in this article explore the treatment by police
of motorists of different races and ethnic backgrounds. The authors concluded that minority citizens
in general and African Americans in particular, were disproportionately stopped
compared with their percentage in the driving eligible population. However,
this study suggests that although minorities are stopped disproportionately
when compared to their representation in the population they were searched no
more frequently than Whites; in fact, Whites were significantly more likely
than minorities to be the subjects of consent searches. The authors posits that
despite the significance of racial profiling as an issue of national concern,
little empirical research exists on whether police traffic stop practices
disproportionately impact minority drivers.

Annotated # 41 Solis, C., Portillos, E. L., Brunson, R. K.
(2009). Latino youths’ experiences with and perceptions of involuntary police
encounters. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
623(1), 39-51.

In this article the researchers conducted a study to discern
the relationship between citizens of the Latino community and the police. The
purpose of the study was to solicit feedback from the male Latino community
about their interaction with members of the NYPD and based on the feedback
received. The researchers conducted
interviews of teenage male Latino and Caribbean residents of New York City. The
response the authors received from the interviews the conducted allowed them to
conclude that the study participants had an unfavorable view of the police
after one encounter. The authors made recommendation to the police department
on how to improve relations with members of this specific community.

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