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  1. 1) Description of the Technology and the science that drove it
    1. a) Science that drove the technology
  • b) Applications of the technology


Assemble at least five scholarly academic references that will be used to write the paper. Using APA format, provide a brief explanation of each resource indicating how that resource will be used. The focus should be upon Cloud Technology. An approximate length of this bibliography is between two to three pages.

  1. 1. Five scholarly academic references
  2. 2. To be written as an abstract paper
  3. 3. APA format

DEFINITION of ‘Cloud Computing’

A model for delivering information technology services in which resources are retrieved from the internet through web-based tools and applications, rather than a direct connection to a server. Data and software packages are stored in servers.

Annotated Bibliography
What is an annotated bibliography?
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, web pages, and other
documents. The reference citation is listed first, and is then followed by a brief description. The
annotation informs the reader of the relevance and quality of the sources cited.
What is the purpose of the annotated bibliography?
In certain classes you will be asked to write an annotated bibliography, which sounds quite
intimidating, but is simply a brief summary of something you have read or consulted during the
course of your research on a given subject. There is a very structured format for writing an
annotated bibliography, and the purpose for this is to provide the organizational tool you need to
keep track of your research and references. The bibliography may serve a number of purposes:
illustrate the quality of research, provide examples, review literature on a particular subject, or
provide further exploration of the subject.

Provided below is a sample annotated bibliography (APA format).

Annotated Bibliography
Adult Education. (2003). In the Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Chicago: Encyclopaedia
Britannica. Retrieved March 23, 2002, from http://britannica.com
This is a good overview article from a well-known, non-specialized encyclopedia
that focuses on the various definitions of adult education. A brief history of adult
education worldwide is given, as well as a discussion on the different modalities
and delivery methods of adult education. There is a fairly in-depth discussion of
Britain’s open university.
Aslanian, C.B. (2001). Adult students today. New York: The College Board.
Exceptional resource for statistics on adult learners and their motivation for
returning to school. The author presents a study spanning 20 years that illustrates
extensive demographics including average age, income, travel distance, cost,
ethnicity, gender, religion, and field of study.
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Brookfield, S. (n.d.). Adult learning: An overview. Retrieved March 26, 2002, from
Excellent and thorough article covering four major research areas: self-directed
learning, critical reflection, experiential learning, and learning to learn. The author
refutes current definitions of adult learning and motivation and proposes instead
that culture, ethnicity, and personality have greater significance than are espoused
in the current myths that describe adult learners. This article is interesting to
consider in that it diametrically opposes the existing and widely accepted views
on the subject.
Donaldson, J. F., Graham, S.W., Martindill, W., & Bradley, S. (2000, Spring). Adult
undergraduate students: How do they define their experiences and their success? Journal of
Continuing Higher Education, 48(2) 2-11. Retrieved March 18, 2002, from
A small study confirming current thinking that adults return to school for
primarily external reasons, e.g., a major life event or career advancement. The
research further illustrates that actual success in learning comes from an internal
locus of control that includes life experience, maturity, motivation, and selfmonitoring.
Marienau, C. (1999, Spring). Self-assessment at work: Outcome of adult learners’
reflections on practice. American Association for Adult & Continuing Education, 49(3),
135. Retrieved April 2, 2002, from the Proquest database.
A qualitative study of adults in graduate programs and their use of self-assessment
and experiential learning from the perspectives of performance at work and

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personal development. This article is enlightening in that it explores the benefits
to the adult learner of self-assessment and introspection. The concept of
purposefulness and the need for the adult learner to connect learning with
concrete experience are discussed.
Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (2001). Adult learning theories, principles and applications.
San Francisco: A Wiley Company.
This is a textbook used for the training of instructors of adult students. There are
several excellent and pertinent chapters devoted to the self-determination of the
adult student and the need for programs to be designed that allow adults to use
their problem-solving skills.
Moore, B. L. (1999). Adult student learners. Penn State Pulse Website. Retrieved
April 3, 2002, from http://www.sa.psu.edu/sara/pulse/adults_65shtml
This website contained a survey of adult learners’ perceptions of their education
experience at Penn State. The study contains a large survey sample and generally
confirms the findings of other studies at major universities. The important
information gleaned is that the emphasis on adult learner programs at historically
traditional universities is a much higher priority due to the increasing population
of adult students.
Sheldon, K. M., & Houser, M. L. (2001). General motivation for college measure. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 152-165. Retrieved April 2, 2002, from
This source is a psychosocial instrument designed to measure adult students’
general motivation for attending college. This instrument is appropriate to my

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research topic because it profiles adult students and rates motivation in terms of
both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It supports the findings in my other sources
and adds another component: the pursuit of happiness.

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